National Legislation - United States
Electronic Signatures in Global
and National Commerce Act
One Hundred Sixth Congress of the
United States of America
AT THE SECOND SESSION
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the twenty-fourth day of January, two thousand
To facilitate the use of electronic records and signatures in interstate or foreign
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Electronic Signatures in Global
and National Commerce Act’’.
TITLE I—ELECTRONIC RECORDS AND SIGNATURES IN COMMERCE
SEC. 101. GENERAL RULE OF VALIDITY
(a) IN GENERAL.—Notwithstanding any statute, regulation, or
other rule of law (other than this title and title II), with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce—
(1) a signature, contract, or other record relating to such
transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforce-ability
solely because it is in electronic form; and
(2) a contract relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because
an electronic signature or electronic record was used in its formation.
(b) PRESERVATION OF RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS.—This title does
(1) limit, alter, or otherwise affect any requirement imposed
by a statute, regulation, or rule of law relating to the rights and obligations of persons under such statute, regulation, or
rule of law other than a requirement that contracts or other records be written, signed, or in nonelectronic form; or
(2) require any person to agree to use or accept electronic records or electronic signatures, other than a governmental
agency with respect to a record other than a contract to which it is a party.
(c) CONSUMER DISCLOSURES.—
(1) CONSENT TO ELECTRONIC RECORDS.—Notwithstanding
subsection (a), if a statute, regulation, or other rule of law requires that information relating to a transaction or trans-actions
in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce be pro-vided or made available to a consumer in writing, the use
of an electronic record to provide or make available (whichever is required) such information satisfies the requirement that
such information be in writing if—
(A) the consumer has affirmatively consented to such
use and has not withdrawn such consent;
(B) the consumer, prior to consenting, is provided with a clear and conspicuous statement—
(i) informing the consumer of
(I) any right or option of the consumer to have the record provided
or made available on paper or in nonelectronic form, and (II) the
right of the consumer to withdraw the consent to have the record
provided or made available in an electronic form and of any
conditions, consequences (which may include termination of the
parties’ relation-ship), or fees in the event of such withdrawal;
(ii) informing the consumer of whether the consent applies
(I) only to the particular transaction which gave rise to the
obligation to provide the record, or (II) to identified categories
of records that may be provided or made available during the course
of the parties’ relationship;
(iii) describing the procedures the consumer must use to
withdraw consent as provided in clause (i) and to update information
needed to contact the consumer
(iv) informing the consumer (I) how, after the con-sent, the
consumer may, upon request, obtain a paper copy of an electronic
record, and (II) whether any fee will be charged for such copy;
(C) the consumer—
(i) prior to consenting, is provided with a statement of the hardware and software requirements for access
to and retention of the electronic records; and (ii) consents electronically, or confirms his or her
consent electronically, in a manner that reasonably demonstrates that the consumer can access information
in the electronic form that will be used to provide the information that is the subject of the consent;
(D) after the consent of a consumer in accordance with subparagraph (A), if a change in the hardware or
software requirements needed to access or retain electronic records creates a material risk that the consumer will
not be able to access or retain a subsequent electronic record that was the subject of the consent, the person
providing the electronic record—
(i) provides the consumer with a statement of (I)
the revised hardware and software requirements for access to and retention of the electronic records, and
(II) the right to withdraw consent without the imposition of any fees for such withdrawal and without the
imposition of any condition or consequence that was not disclosed under subparagraph (B)(i); and
(ii) again complies with subparagraph (C).
(2) OTHER RIGHTS.—
(A) PRESERVATION OF CONSUMER PROTECTIONS.—
Nothing in this title affects the content or timing of any disclosure or other record required to be provided or made
available to any consumer under any statute, regulation, or other rule of law.
(B) VERIFICATION OR ACKNOWLEDGMENT.—If a law that was enacted prior to this Act expressly requires a record
to be provided or made available by a specified method that requires verification or acknowledgment of receipt,
the record may be provided or made available electronically only if the method used provides verification or
acknowledgment of receipt (whichever is required).
(3) EFFECT OF FAILURE TO OBTAIN ELECTRONIC CONSENT OR CONFIRMATION OF CONSENT.—The legal effectiveness,
validity, or enforceability of any contract executed by a consumer shall not be denied solely because of the failure to
obtain electronic consent or confirmation of consent by that consumer in accordance with paragraph
(4) PROSPECTIVE EFFECT.—Withdrawal of consent by a consumer shall not affect the legal effectiveness, validity, or
enforceability of electronic records provided or made available to that consumer in accordance with paragraph (1) prior to
implementation of the consumer’s withdrawal of consent. A consumer’s withdrawal of consent shall be effective within a
reasonable period of time after receipt of the withdrawal by the provider of the record. Failure to comply with paragraph
(1)(D) may, at the election of the consumer, be treated as a withdrawal of consent for purposes of this paragraph.
(5) PRIOR CONSENT.—This subsection does not apply to any records that are provided or made available to a consumer
who has consented prior to the effective date of this title to receive such records in electronic form as permitted by any
statute, regulation, or other rule of law.
(6) ORAL COMMUNICATIONS.—An oral communication or a recording of an oral communication shall not qualify as an
electronic record for purposes of this subsection except as other-wise provided under applicable law.
(d) RETENTION OF CONTRACTS AND RECORDS.—
(1) ACCURACY AND ACCESSIBILITY.—If a statute, regulation,
or other rule of law requires that a contract or other record relating to a transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign
commerce be retained, that requirement is met by retaining an electronic record of the information in the contract or other
(A) accurately reflects the information set forth in the
contract or other record; and
(B) remains accessible to all persons who are entitled to access by statute, regulation, or rule of law, for the
period required by such statute, regulation, or rule of law, in a form that is capable of being accurately reproduced
for later reference, whether by transmission, printing, or otherwise.
(2) EXCEPTION.—A requirement to retain a contract or other record in accordance with paragraph (1) does not apply to
any information whose sole purpose is to enable the contract or other record to be sent, communicated, or received.
(3) ORIGINALS.—If a statute, regulation, or other rule of law requires a contract or other record relating to a transaction
in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce to be provided, available, or retained in its original form, or provides con-sequences
if the contract or other record is not provided, avail-able, or retained in its original form, that statute, regulation,
or rule of law is satisfied by an electronic record that complies with paragraph (1).
(4) CHECKS.—If a statute, regulation, or other rule of law requires the retention of a check, that requirement is satisfied
by retention of an electronic record of the information on the front and back of the check in accordance with paragraph
(e) ACCURACY AND ABILITY TO RETAIN CONTRACTS AND OTHER
RECORDS.—Notwithstanding subsection (a), if a statute, regulation, or other rule of law requires that a contract or other record relating
to a transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce be in writing, the legal effect, validity, or enforceability of an
electronic record of such contract or other record may be denied if such electronic record is not in a form that is capable of being
retained and accurately reproduced for later reference by all parties or persons who are entitled to retain the contract or other record.
(f) PROXIMITY.—Nothing in this title affects the proximity required by any statute, regulation, or other rule of law with
respect to any warning, notice, disclosure, or other record required to be posted, displayed, or publicly affixed.
(g) NOTARIZATION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT.—If a statute, regulation, or other rule of law requires a signature or record relating
to a transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce to be notarized, acknowledged, verified, or made under oath, that
requirement is satisfied if the electronic signature of the person authorized to perform those acts, together with all other information
required to be included by other applicable statute, regulation, or rule of law, is attached to or logically associated with the
signature or record.
(h) ELECTRONIC AGENTS.—A contract or other record relating to a transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce
may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because its formation, creation, or delivery involved the action of
one or more electronic agents so long as the action of any such electronic agent is legally attributable to the person to be bound.
(i) INSURANCE.—It is the specific intent of the Congress that
this title and title II apply to the business of insurance.
(j) INSURANCE AGENTS AND BROKERS.—An insurance agent or broker acting under the direction of a party that enters into a
contract by means of an electronic record or electronic signature may not be held liable for any deficiency in the electronic procedures
agreed to by the parties under that contract if—
(1) the agent or broker has not engaged in negligent, reckless, or intentional tortious conduct;
(2) the agent or broker was not involved in the development or establishment of such electronic procedures; and
(3) the agent or broker did not deviate from such procedures.
SEC. 102. EXEMPTION TO PREEMPTION.
(a) IN GENERAL.—A State statute, regulation, or other rule
of law may modify, limit, or supersede the provisions of section 101 with respect to State law only if such statute, regulation,
or rule of law—
(1) constitutes an enactment or adoption of the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act as approved and recommended for
enactment in all the States by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws in 1999, except that
any exception to the scope of such Act enacted by a State under section 3(b)(4) of such Act shall be preempted to the
extent such exception is inconsistent with this title or title II, or would not be permitted under paragraph (2)(A)(ii) of
this subsection; or (2)(A) specifies the alternative procedures or requirements
for the use or acceptance (or both) of electronic records or electronic signatures to establish the legal effect, validity, or
enforceability of contracts or other records, if—
(i) such alternative procedures or requirements are
consistent with this title and title II; and
(ii) such alternative procedures or requirements do not require, or accord greater legal status or effect to, the
implementation or application of a specific technology or technical specification for performing the functions of
creating, storing, generating, receiving, communicating, or authenticating electronic records or electronic signatures;
and (B) if enacted or adopted after the date of the enactment of this Act, makes specific reference to this Act.
(b) EXCEPTIONS FOR ACTIONS BY STATES AS MARKET PARTICI-PANTS.—
Subsection (a)(2)(A)(ii) shall not apply to the statutes, regulations, or other rules of law governing procurement by any State,
or any agency or instrumentality thereof.
(c) PREVENTION OF CIRCUMVENTION.—Subsection (a) does not permit a State to circumvent this title or title II through the
imposition of nonelectronic delivery methods under section 8(b)(2) of the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act.
SEC. 103. SPECIFIC EXCEPTIONS.
(a) EXCEPTED REQUIREMENTS.—The provisions of section 101
shall not apply to a contract or other record to the extent it is governed by—
(1) a statute, regulation, or other rule of law governing
the creation and execution of wills, codicils, or testamentary trusts;
(2) a State statute, regulation, or other rule of law governing adoption, divorce, or other matters of family law; or
(3) the Uniform Commercial Code, as in effect in any State, other than sections 1–107 and 1–206 and Articles 2 and 2A.
(b) ADDITIONAL EXCEPTIONS.—The provisions of section 101 shall not apply to—
(1) court orders or notices, or official court documents (including briefs, pleadings, and other writings) required to
be executed in connection with court proceedings;
(2) any notice of—
(A) the cancellation or termination of utility services
(including water, heat, and power);
(B) default, acceleration, repossession, foreclosure, or eviction, or the right to cure, under a credit agreement
secured by, or a rental agreement for, a primary residence of an individual;
(C) the cancellation or termination of health insurance or benefits or life insurance benefits (excluding annuities);
(D) recall of a product, or material failure of a product, that risks endangering health or safety; or
(3) any document required to accompany any transportation
or handling of hazardous materials, pesticides, or other toxic or dangerous materials.
(c) REVIEW OF EXCEPTIONS.—
(1) EVALUATION REQUIRED.—The Secretary of Commerce,
acting through the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information, shall review the operation of the exceptions
in subsections (a) and (b) to evaluate, over a period of 3 years, whether such exceptions continue to be necessary for the
protection of consumers. Within 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Assistant Secretary shall submit a report to
the Congress on the results of such evaluation.
(2) DETERMINATIONS.—If a Federal regulatory agency, with respect to matter within its jurisdiction, determines after notice
and an opportunity for public comment, and publishes a finding, that one or more such exceptions are no longer necessary for
the protection of consumers and eliminating such exceptions will not increase the material risk of harm to consumers, such
agency may extend the application of section 101 to the exceptions identified in such finding.
SEC. 104. APPLICABILITY TO FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS.
(a) FILING AND ACCESS REQUIREMENTS.—Subject to subsection
(c)(2), nothing in this title limits or supersedes any requirement by a Federal regulatory agency, self-regulatory organization, or
State regulatory agency that records be filed with such agency or organization in accordance with specified standards or formats.
(b) PRESERVATION OF EXISTING RULEMAKING AUTHORITY.—
(1) USE OF AUTHORITY TO INTERPRET.—Subject to paragraph (2) and subsection (c), a Federal regulatory agency or State
regulatory agency that is responsible for rulemaking under any other statute may interpret section 101 with respect to
such statute through—
(A) the issuance of regulations pursuant to a statute;
(B) to the extent such agency is authorized by statute
to issue orders or guidance, the issuance of orders or guidance of general applicability that are publicly available
and published (in the Federal Register in the case of an order or guidance issued by a Federal regulatory agency).
This paragraph does not grant any Federal regulatory agency or State regulatory agency authority to issue regulations,
orders, or guidance pursuant to any statute that does not authorize such issuance.
(2) LIMITATIONS ON INTERPRETATION
AUTHORITY.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a Federal regulatory agency shall not
adopt any regulation, order, or guidance described in paragraph (1), and a State regulatory agency is preempted by section
101 from adopting any regulation, order, or guidance described in paragraph (1), unless—
(A) such regulation, order, or guidance is consistent
with section 101;
(B) such regulation, order, or guidance does not add to the requirements of such section; and
(C) such agency finds, in connection with the issuance of such regulation, order, or guidance, that—
(i) there is a substantial justification for the
regulation, order, or guidance;
(ii) the methods selected to carry out that purpose—
(I) are substantially equivalent to the
requirements imposed on records that are not electronic records; and
(II) will not impose unreasonable costs on the acceptance and use of electronic records; and
(III) the methods selected to carry out that purpose do not require, or accord greater legal status or effect
to, the implementation or application of a specific technology or technical specification for performing the
functions of creating, storing, generating, receiving, communicating, or authenticating electronic records or
(3) PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.—
(A) ACCURACY, RECORD INTEGRITY, ACCESSIBILITY.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(C)(iii), a Federal regulatory agency or State regulatory agency may interpret section
101(d) to specify performance standards to assure accuracy, record integrity, and accessibility of records that are
required to be retained. Such performance standards may be specified in a manner that imposes a requirement in
violation of paragraph (2)(C)(iii) if the requirement (i) serves an important governmental objective; and (ii) is
substantially related to the achievement of that objective. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to grant
any Federal regulatory agency or State regulatory agency authority to require use of a particular type of software
or hardware in order to comply with section 101(d).
(B) PAPER OR PRINTED FORM.—Notwithstanding sub-section (c)(1), a Federal regulatory agency or State
regulatory agency may interpret section 101(d) to require retention of a record in a tangible printed or paper form
(i) there is a compelling governmental interest relating to law enforcement or national security for
imposing such requirement; and (ii) imposing such requirement is essential to
attaining such interest.
(4) EXCEPTIONS FOR ACTIONS BY GOVERNMENT AS MARKET PARTICIPANT.—Paragraph
(2)(C)(iii) shall not apply to the statutes, regulations, or other rules of law governing procurement
by the Federal or any State government, or any agency or instrumentality thereof.
(c) ADDITIONAL LIMITATIONS.—
(1) REIMPOSING PAPER PROHIBITED.—Nothing in subsection
(b) (other than paragraph (3)(B) thereof) shall be construed to grant any Federal regulatory agency or State regulatory
agency authority to impose or reimpose any requirement that a record be in a tangible printed or paper form.
(2) CONTINUING OBLIGATION UNDER GOVERNMENT PAPER-WORK ELIMINATION ACT.—Nothing in subsection (a) or (b)
relieves any Federal regulatory agency of its obligations under the Government Paperwork Elimination Act (title XVII of
Public Law 105–277).
(d) AUTHORITY TO EXEMPT FROM CONSENT PROVISION.—
(1) IN GENERAL.—A Federal regulatory agency may, with
respect to matter within its jurisdiction, by regulation or order issued after notice and an opportunity for public comment,
exempt without condition a specified category or type of record from the requirements relating to consent in section 101(c)
if such exemption is necessary to eliminate a substantial burden on electronic commerce and will not increase the material risk
of harm to consumers.
(2) PROSPECTUSES.—Within 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Securities and Exchange Commission
shall issue a regulation or order pursuant to paragraph (1) exempting from section 101(c) any records that are required
to be provided in order to allow advertising, sales literature, or other information concerning a security issued by an
investment company that is registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, or concerning the issuer thereof, to be
excluded from the definition of a prospectus under section 2(a)(10)(A) of the Securities Act of 1933.
(e) ELECTRONIC LETTERS OF AGENCY.—The Federal Communications Commission shall not hold any contract for
telecommunications service or letter of agency for a preferred carrier change,
that otherwise complies with the Commission’s rules, to be legally ineffective, invalid, or unenforceable solely because an electronic
record or electronic signature was used in its formation or authorization.
SEC. 105. STUDIES.
(a) DELIVERY.—Within 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce shall conduct an
inquiry regarding the effectiveness of the delivery of electronic
records to consumers using electronic mail as compared with delivery of written records via the United States Postal Service
and private express mail services. The Secretary shall submit a
report to the Congress regarding the results of such inquiry by the conclusion of such 12-month period.
(b) STUDY OF ELECTRONIC CONSENT.—Within 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce
and the Federal Trade Commission shall submit a report to the Congress evaluating any benefits provided to consumers by the
procedure required by section 101(c)(1)(C)(ii); any burdens imposed on electronic commerce by that provision; whether the benefits
outweigh the burdens; whether the absence of the procedure required by section 101(c)(1)(C)(ii) would increase the incidence
of fraud directed against consumers; and suggesting any revisions to the provision deemed appropriate by the Secretary and the
Commission. In conducting this evaluation, the Secretary and the Commission shall solicit comment from the general public, consumer
representatives, and electronic commerce businesses.
SEC. 106. DEFINITIONS.
For purposes of this title:
(1) CONSUMER.—The term ‘‘consumer’’ means an individual who obtains, through a transaction, products or services which
are used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, and also means the legal representative of such an individual.
(2) ELECTRONIC.—The term ‘‘electronic’’ means relating to
technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.
(3) ELECTRONIC AGENT.—The term ‘‘electronic agent’’ means
a computer program or an electronic or other automated means used independently to initiate an action or respond to electronic
records or performances in whole or in part without review or action by an individual at the time of the action or response.
(4) ELECTRONIC RECORD.—The term ‘‘electronic record’’ means a contract or other record created, generated, sent,
communicated, received, or stored by electronic means.
(5) ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE.—The term ‘‘electronic
signature’’ means an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and
executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.
(6) FEDERAL REGULATORY AGENCY.—The term ‘‘Federal regulatory agency’’ means an agency, as that term is defined
in section 552(f) of title 5, United States Code.
(7) INFORMATION.—The term ‘‘information’’ means data, text, images, sounds, codes, computer programs, software, data-bases,
or the like.
(8) PERSON.—The term ‘‘person’’ means an individual,
corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, governmental
agency, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.
(9) RECORD.—The term ‘‘record’’ means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an
electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
(10) REQUIREMENT.—The term ‘‘requirement’’ includes a prohibition.
(11) SELF-REGULATORY ORGANIZATION.—The term ‘‘self-regulatory
organization’’ means an organization or entity that is not a Federal regulatory agency or a State, but that is
under the supervision of a Federal regulatory agency and is authorized under Federal law to adopt and administer rules
applicable to its members that are enforced by such organization or entity, by a Federal regulatory agency, or by another
(12) STATE.—The term ‘‘State’’ includes the District of Columbia and the territories and possessions of the United
(13) TRANSACTION.—The term ‘‘transaction’’ means an action or set of actions relating to the conduct of business,
consumer, or commercial affairs between two or more persons, including any of the following types of conduct—
(A) the sale, lease, exchange, licensing, or other disposition of
(i) personal property, including goods and intangibles, (ii) services, and (iii) any combination thereof; and
(B) the sale, lease, exchange, or other disposition of any interest in real property, or any combination thereof.
SEC. 107. EFFECTIVE DATE.
(a) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in subsection (b), this
title shall be effective on October 1, 2000.
(1) RECORD RETENTION.—
(A) IN GENERAL.—Subject to subparagraph (B), this
title shall be effective on March 1, 2001, with respect to a requirement that a record be retained imposed by—
(i) a Federal statute, regulation, or other rule of
(ii) a State statute, regulation, or other rule of law administered or promulgated by a State regulatory
(B) DELAYED EFFECT FOR PENDING RULEMAKINGS.—If
on March 1, 2001, a Federal regulatory agency or State regulatory agency has announced, proposed, or initiated,
but not completed, a rulemaking proceeding to prescribe a regulation under section 104(b)(3) with respect to a
requirement described in subparagraph (A), this title shall be effective on June 1, 2001, with respect to such
(2) CERTAIN GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS.—With regard to any transaction involving a loan guarantee or loan
guarantee commitment (as those terms are defined in section 502 of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990), or involving
a program listed in the Federal Credit Supplement, Budget of the United States, FY 2001, this title applies only to such
transactions entered into, and to any loan or mortgage made, insured, or guaranteed by the United States Government
thereunder, on and after one year after the date of enactment of this Act.
(3) STUDENT LOANS.—With respect to any records that are provided or made available to a consumer pursuant to an
application for a loan, or a loan made, pursuant to title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, section 101(c) of this
Act shall not apply until the earlier of—
(A) such time as the Secretary of Education publishes
revised promissory notes under section 432(m) of the Higher Education Act of 1965; or
(B) one year after the date of enactment of this Act.
TITLE II—TRANSFERABLE RECORDS
SEC. 201. TRANSFERABLE RECORDS.
(a) DEFINITIONS.—For purposes of this section:
(1) TRANSFERABLE RECORD.—The term ‘‘transferable record’’
means an electronic record that—
(A) would be a note under Article 3 of the Uniform
Commercial Code if the electronic record were in writing;
(B) the issuer of the electronic record expressly has agreed is a transferable record; and
(C) relates to a loan secured by real property.
A transferable record may be executed using an electronic signature.
(2) OTHER DEFINITIONS.—The terms ‘‘electronic record’’,
‘‘electronic signature’’, and ‘‘person’’ have the same meanings
provided in section 106 of this Act.
(b) CONTROL.—A person has control of a transferable record
if a system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the transferable record reliably establishes that person as the
person to which the transferable record was issued or transferred.
(c) CONDITIONS.—A system satisfies subsection (b), and a person
is deemed to have control of a transferable record, if the transferable
record is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that—
(1) a single authoritative copy of the transferable record
exists which is unique, identifiable, and, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6), unalterable;
(2) the authoritative copy identifies the person asserting control as—
(A) the person to which the transferable record was issued; or
(B) if the authoritative copy indicates that the
transferable record has been transferred, the person to which the transferable record was most recently transferred;
(3) the authoritative copy is communicated to and
maintained by the person asserting control or its designated
(4) copies or revisions that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy can be made only with the
consent of the person asserting control;
(5) each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the
authoritative copy; and
(6) any revision of the authoritative copy is readily
identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.
(d) STATUS AS HOLDER.—Except as otherwise agreed, a person
having control of a transferable record is the holder, as defined in section 1–201(20) of the Uniform Commercial Code, of the
transferable record and has the same rights and defenses as a holder of an equivalent record or writing under the Uniform
Commercial Code, including, if the applicable statutory requirements under section 3–302(a), 9–308, or revised section 9–330 of
the Uniform Commercial Code are satisfied, the rights and defenses of a holder in due course or a purchaser, respectively. Delivery,
possession, and endorsement are not required to obtain or exercise any of the rights under this subsection.
(e) OBLIGOR RIGHTS.—Except as otherwise agreed, an obligor under a transferable record has the same rights and defenses as
an equivalent obligor under equivalent records or writings under the Uniform Commercial Code.
(f) PROOF OF CONTROL.—If requested by a person against which enforcement is sought, the person seeking to enforce the
transferable record shall provide reasonable proof that the person is in control of the transferable record. Proof may include access to
the authoritative copy of the transferable record and related business records sufficient to review the terms of the transferable
record and to establish the identity of the person having control of the transferable record.
(g) UCC REFERENCES.—For purposes of this subsection, all references to the Uniform Commercial Code are to the Uniform
Commercial Code as in effect in the jurisdiction the law of which governs the transferable record.
SEC. 202. EFFECTIVE DATE.
This title shall be effective 90 days after the date of enactment
of this Act.
TITLE III—PROMOTION OF INTER-NATIONAL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE
SEC. 301. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE USE OF ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES IN INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS.
(a) PROMOTION OF ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES.—
(1) REQUIRED ACTIONS.—The Secretary of Commerce shall promote the acceptance and use, on an international basis,
of electronic signatures in accordance with the principles specified in paragraph (2) and in a manner consistent with section
101 of this Act. The Secretary of Commerce shall take all actions necessary in a manner consistent with such principles
to eliminate or reduce, to the maximum extent possible, the impediments to commerce in electronic signatures, for the
purpose of facilitating the development of interstate and foreign commerce.
(2) PRINCIPLES.—The principles specified in this paragraph are the following:
(A) Remove paper-based obstacles to electronic
transactions by adopting relevant principles from the Model Law on Electronic Commerce adopted in 1996 by the United
Nations Commission on International Trade Law.
(B) Permit parties to a transaction to determine the appropriate authentication technologies and
implementation models for their transactions, with assurance that those technologies and implementation models will be
recognized and enforced.
(C) Permit parties to a transaction to have the opportunity to prove in court or other proceedings that their
authentication approaches and their transactions are valid.
(D) Take a nondiscriminatory approach to electronic signatures and authentication methods from other
(b) CONSULTATION.—In conducting the activities required by
this section, the Secretary shall consult with users and providers of electronic signature products and services and other interested
(c) DEFINITIONS.—As used in this section, the terms ‘‘electronic
record’’ and ‘‘electronic signature’’ have the same meanings provided
in section 106 of this Act.
TITLE IV—COMMISSION ON ONLINE CHILD PROTECTION
SEC. 401. AUTHORITY TO ACCEPT GIFTS.
Section 1405 of the Child Online Protection Act (47 U.S.C. 231 note) is amended by inserting after subsection (g) the following
‘‘(h) GIFTS, BEQUESTS, AND DEVISES.—The Commission may
accept, use, and dispose of gifts, bequests, or devises of services or property, both real (including the use of office space) and
personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission. Gifts or grants not used at the termination of the
Commission shall be returned to the donor or grantee.’’
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate.