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Argentina - Measures Affecting Imports of Footwear,
Report of the Panel
The report of the Panel on Argentina - Measures Affecting Imports of Footwear, Textiles, Apparel and Other Items is being circulated to all Members, pursuant to the DSU. The report is being circulated as an unrestricted document from 25 November 1997 pursuant to the Procedures for the Circulation and Derestriction of WTO Documents (WT/L/160/Rev.1). Members are reminded that in accordance with the DSU only parties to the dispute may appeal a panel report, an appeal shall be limited to issues of law covered in the panel report and legal interpretations developed by the panel, and that there shall be no ex parte communications with the panel or Appellate Body concerning matters under consideration by the panel or Appellate Body.
Note by the Secretariat: This Panel Report shall be adopted by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) within 60 days after the date of its circulation unless a party to the dispute decides to appeal or the DSB decides by consensus not to adopt the report. If the Panel Report is appealed to the Appellate Body, it shall not be considered for adoption by the DSB until after the completion of the appeal. Information on the current status of the Panel Report is available from the WTO Secretariat.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 On 4 October 1996, the United States requested Argentina to hold consultations pursuant to Article 4 of the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes ("DSU"), Article XXII:1 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ("GATT 1994"), Article 14 of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), Article 19 of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the GATT 1994 ("Customs Valuation Agreement"), and Article 7 of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing ("ATC"), regarding certain measures maintained by Argentina affecting imports of footwear, textiles, apparel and other items, namely, measures imposing specific duties on various footwear, textiles and apparel in excess of the bound rate of 35 per cent ad valorem provided in Argentina's Schedule LXIV; a statistical tax of three per cent ad valorem on imports of all sources other than MERCOSUR countries; and measures imposing, inter alia, labelling requirements related to affidavits of product components (WT/DS56/1).
1.2 Pursuant to Article 4.11 DSU, Hungary requested to be joined in these consultations on 21 October 1996 (WT/DS56/2). The European Communities ("EC") made a similar request on 25 October 1996 (WT/DS56/3). In separate communications dated 6 November 1996, Argentina accepted the request of Hungary and the request of the EC to join the consultations which the United States had requested (WT/DS56/4).
1.3 During the consultations, a mutually agreed solution was reached between the United States and Argentina regarding Argentina's labelling requirements. However, the parties failed to reach a mutually satisfactory solution on the other aspects raised during the consultations.
1.4 On 9 January 1997, the United States requested the Dispute Settlement Body ("DSB") to establish a panel (WT/DS56/5). The United States claimed that Argentina's measures were "inconsistent with the obligations of Argentina under Articles II, VII, VIII and X of the GATT 1994; Articles 1 through 8 of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the GATT 1994; and Article 7 of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing".
1.5 On 25 February 1997, the DSB established a panel pursuant to the request made by the United States, in accordance with Article 6 DSU. In document WT/DS56/6, the Secretariat reported that the parties had agreed that the Panel would have the standard terms of reference as follows:
"to examine, in the light of the relevant provisions of the covered agreements cited by the United States in document WT/DS56/5, the matter referred to the DSB by the United States in that document and to make such findings as will assist the DSB in making the recommendations or in giving the rulings provided for in those agreements".
1.6 The same document WT/DS56/6 reported the constitution of the Panel on 4 April 1997 with the following composition:
Chairman: Mr. Peter Pale_ka
Members: Ms. Heather Forton
Mr. Peter May
1.7 The EC, Hungary and India reserved their rights to participate in the Panel proceedings as third parties, and all presented arguments to the Panel.
1.8 The Panel met with the parties on 17-18 June 1997 and 23 July 1997. It met with third parties on 17 June 1997. The Panel issued its interim report to the parties on 30 September 1997. Both parties requested the panel to review parts of the interim report. None of them requested the panel to hold an additional meeting.
II. FACTUAL ASPECTS
A. ARGENTINA'S IMPORT REGIME FOR TEXTILES, APPAREL AND FOOTWEAR
2.1 The great majority of Argentina's import tariffs are fixed in ad valorem terms. Regarding textiles, clothing and footwear, Argentina maintained a regime of minimum specific import duties as from 1993. This regime was applied through resoluciónes (resolutions) and decretos (decrees) having fixed terms.
2.2 Argentina approved the results of the Uruguay Round through Law No. 24.425, promulgated on 23 December 1994. These results included a bound rate of duty of 35 per cent ad valorem with respect to textiles, apparel and footwear imported into Argentina. In parallel, Argentina continued to apply a system of minimum specific import duties in the footwear, textile and apparel sectors. Regarding footwear, the minimum specific duty was revoked in 1997. Provisional safeguard measures were applied in that sector on 25 February 1997.
2.3 Concurrently, since 1989, Argentina applied a tax on imported products intended to finance statistical services to importers, exporters and the general public.
2.4 The Panel procedure concerned the Argentine measures adopted in order to apply the above-mentioned regime, as established and maintained inter alia through the laws, decrees and resolutions referred to below. The latest measures adopted at the time of the request for the establishment of the Panel (9 January 1997) were, for textiles and apparel, Resolution No. 22/97 of 7 January 1997, extending the validity of the minimum specific import duties for those sectors until 31 August 1997 1, for footwear Resolution No. 23/97 of 7 January 1997, extending the validity of the minimum specific import duties for that sector until 31 August 1997 2 and, with respect to the statistical services tax, Presidential Decree No. 389/95 of 22 March 1995. On 25 February 1997, the date of establishment of the Panel by the DSB, the minimum specific import duties for the tariff headings contained in Harmonized System ("HS") Chapter 64 (footwear) and listed in Annex IX to Decree No. 998/95, as amended, had been repealed by Resolution No. 225/97, dated 14 February 1997. Further to the initiation of a safeguard investigation, provisional safeguard measures in the form of minimum specific import duties became applicable on 25 February 1997 to certain imports of footwear in application of Resolution No. 226/97. 3
B. MINIMUM SPECIFIC IMPORT DUTIES ("DIEM")
1. STATED PURPOSE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE MINIMUM SPECIFIC IMPORT DUTIES
2.5 The stated purpose of the minimum specific import duties, also referred to as "DIEM" 4, was to counteract injury allegedly suffered by Argentine manufacturers as a result of imports of textiles, apparel and footwear at prices lower than the production costs in the countries of origin or lower than international prices. 5
2.6 The system operated as follows: for each relevant HS tariff line of textiles, apparels and footwear, Argentina calculated an average import price. Once it had determined the average import price for a particular category, Argentina multiplied that price by the bound rate of 35 per cent, resulting in a specific minimum duty for all products in that category. Upon the importation of covered textiles, apparel or footwear, depending on the customs value of the goods concerned, Argentina applied either the specific minimum duty applicable to those items or the ad valorem rate, whichever was higher.
2. MINIMUM SPECIFIC IMPORT DUTIES ON TEXTILES AND APPAREL
2.7 Minimum specific import duties were originally applied by Argentina to approximately 200 categories of textiles and apparel by Resolution No. 811/93 of the Argentine Ministry of Economy, and Public Works and Services of 29 July 1993 6. Article 3 of the Resolution provided that the specific import duties established by Article 1 were to operate as a minimum of the corresponding ad valorem import duty. The categories of products to which the minimum specific duties applied were listed, together with the duties, in Annex I to the Resolution. The minimum specific import duties established by the Resolution were to remain valid until 31 January 1995, with the possibility of a single, non-renewable extension of six months.
2.8 As a result of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, Argentina included in its Schedule of Concessions (Schedule LXIV) a maximum duty rate of 35 per cent ad valorem. 7 This bound rate became effective on 1 January 1995. It was generally applicable to imports, with certain specified exceptions for products subject to a different level of binding.
2.9 After the entry into force of the Uruguay Round results, Argentina continued to apply the minimum specific import duties. Presidential Decree No. 2275/94 of 23 December 1994 extended the application of these specific duties until 31 December 1995 and expanded the number of affected categories of merchandise. 8 Pursuant to Article 15 and Annex XII to the Decree, minimum specific import duties applied to categories of textiles and apparel (HS Chapters 51 to 63) and footwear (HS Chapter 64).
2.10 Presidential Decree No. 2275/94 was modified, on 22 September 1995, by two resolutions of the Argentine Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services. Resolution No. 304/95 applied to textiles and apparel and modified the specific duties applicable. It increased the rate of the formerly established specific duties for a number of textiles and apparel tariff lines. Resolution No. 305/95 applied to footwear.
2.11 The application of the minimum specific import duties on textiles and apparel was extended until 31 December 1996 by Article 9 of Presidential Decree No. 998/95 of 28 December 1995. 9 This Decree was amended through Resolution No. 299/96 of the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services of 20 February 1996, which, inter alia, modified the specific duties applicable to imports of nylon carpeting, towels and undergarments.
2.12 As of 1 January 1997, the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services extended the application of the minimum specific import duties until 31 August 1997 through Resolution No. 22/97. 10
2.13 The minimum specific import duties on textile and apparel products were finally modified by Resolution No. 597/97 of the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services of 14 May 1997. 11 This Resolution modified Annex IX to Decree No. 998/95 for a series of tariff positions. For some of these, minimum specific duties were progressively reduced. The Resolution called for reductions to take place on five dates between 1 June 1997 and 1 April 1998.
3. MINIMUM SPECIFIC DUTIES ON FOOTWEAR
2.14 Measures similar to the specific duties applicable to textiles and apparel were applied to imports of footwear. Through Resolution No. 1696/93 of 28 December 1993 12, the Argentine Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services instituted minimum specific import duties on certain categories of athletic shoes. Article 5 of the Resolution provided that the specific import duties established by Article 4 were to operate as a minimum of the corresponding ad valorem import duty. Article 6 provided that the Resolution was to apply until 31 December 1994, with the possibility of a single, non-renewable extension of six months. As for the minimum specific import duties on textiles and apparel, the specific import duties on footwear were to be levied only in the event that they resulted in the payment of a higher tariff than the relevant ad valorem duty 13. Resolution No. 1696/93 applied only to products from countries outside the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) or the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). 14
2.15 The minimum specific import duties on footwear were maintained after the entry into force of the Uruguay Round results. As for textiles and apparel, Presidential Decree No. 2275/94 of 23 December 1994 extended the application of the specific duties on footwear until 31 December 1995. Their application was further extended until 31 December 1996 by Article 9 of Presidential Decree No. 998/95. Resolution No. 305/95 of 22 September 1995 increased the specific duties for certain categories of footwear and amended the list of footwear tariff lines to which the minimum specific import duties were applicable.
2.16 Through Resolution No. 103/96 of 6 September 1996, Argentina's Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services amended the level of specific duties applied on certain footwear categories. Reductions in the rate of duty were to occur in four phases through January 1998.
2.17 The specific duties on footwear HS categories as set forth in Decree No. 998/95 as amended by Resolution No. 103/96 were renewed by Resolution No. 23/97 until 31 August 1997.15
2.18 On 14 February 1997, the Argentine Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services adopted Resolution No. 225/97, revoking all minimum specific import duties on footwear. The same day, the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services, through Resolution No. 226/97 16, initiated a safeguard investigation and imposed provisional safeguard measures. On 21 February 1997, Argentina notified the Committee on Safeguards of the World Trade Organization of the initiation of an investigation and the reasons for it as well as of its intention to adopt provisional safeguard measures 17. The provisional safeguard duties became effective on 25 February 1997.
C. STATISTICAL TAX
2.19 The statistical tax at issue in this case was regulated by Articles 762 to 766 of the Argentine Customs Code (Law No. 22.415). In 1961, a tax intended to finance a statistical service had been imposed through Decree No. 6123/61. In application of Law No. 23.664, adopted in 1989 and relating to Articles 762 to 766 of the Argentine Customs Code 18, Argentina imposed, until 1994, a three per cent ad valorem tax which related to the collection of statistical information by the Argentine customs service regarding imports and exports. Through Presidential Decree No. 2277/94 adopted on 23 December 1994 19 pursuant to Article 764 of the Customs Code, the tax was reduced to zero per cent in order (a) "to remove all those factors that may complicate the process of economic integration and openness" 20; (b) "to eliminate those factors that can make difficult the free circulation of goods"21; and (c) "to neutralize the effect on foreign trade that the statistical tax [...] in force in [Argentina] may cause" 22. On 22 March 1995, Presidential Decree No. 389/95 set the level of the statistical tax at three per cent. The statistical tax was applied to import transactions with a view to providing a general statistical service. According to Article 762 of the Argentine Customs Code, the tax was to be applied on an ad valorem basis. The tax did not apply to goods exported to any destination in suspensive or definitive form for consumption. It applied to all imports except for articles subject to a temporary import regime, articles originating in MERCOSUR Member States, imported goods subject to the MERCOSUR common external tariff rate of zero percent, selected imported capital goods, goods related to data processing and telecommunications and certain other categories under the Common Nomenclature of MERCOSUR. The Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services was authorized by Decree No. 389/95 to establish the appropriate exceptions in every case.
2.20 The purpose of Argentina's import tax was to recover the cost of the statistical service rendered in respect of Argentine import and export transactions. The first paragraph of the preamble of the Decree stated that "it was necessary to provide for the necessary tax collection to contribute to the financing of customs activities related to the registration, computing and data processing of export and import information, in order to rely upon Foreign Trade statistics in rapid and flexible form" 23. This service was not provided to importers on an individual basis, i.e. to the specific importer concerned by the relevant transaction on which the statistical tax was levied, but benefited foreign trade operators in general and foreign trade as an activity in itself. The service consisted in the recording of trade information, subsequent processing and publication, and distribution to the public in general. Argentina's customs administration registered the information relating to prices, quantities, description, quality and classification of the goods in the desegregated form required for purposes of control, valuation and assessment of the taxes. This information was standardized and transmitted to the National Statistical and Census Institute 24 of Argentina for purposes of analysis and subsequent processing, and a compilation of the information was published. At the same time, the basic data were also transmitted to the Departments of Agriculture, Mining, Fuel, Tourism, Transport and Industry and Trade, for analysis and processing. This exercise resulted in publications and statistical material which was made available to foreign trade operators.
2.21 The tax was bound in Argentina's Schedule LXIV under the heading "other duties and charges" at three per cent ad valorem.
III. CLAIMS AND MAIN ARGUMENTS
3.1 The United States asked the Panel to find that:
(a) Decree No. 998/95, Resolution No. 299/96, and Resolution No. 22/97, which imposed specific duties on textiles and apparel violated Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b) GATT 1994 and Article 7 ATC;
(b) Decree No. 389/95, which applied a tax on imports, violated Article VIII GATT 1994 and Article 7 ATC; and
(c) Decree No. 2275/94, Resolution No. 305/95, Decree No. 998/95, Resolution No. 103/96, and Resolution No. 23/97, which applied specific duties on footwear until February 1997, violated Articles II:1(a) and II:1(b) GATT 1994.
The United States also requested that the Panel include within its review "other measures which impose specific duties on various textile, apparel and footwear items in excess of the bound rate of 35 per cent ad valorem provided in Argentina's Schedule LXIV". 25
3.2 Pursuant to Article 3.8 DSU, the United States further requested the Panel to conclude that the measures identified in (a) and (b) above nullified or impaired benefits accruing to the United States under the WTO Agreement and the measures identified in (c) nullified or impaired such benefits as well.
3.3 The United States requested that the Panel recommend that Argentina bring its measures into conformity with its obligations under GATT 1994 and the ATC.
3.4 Argentina asked the Panel to find that:
(a) As a special preliminary ruling, there were no grounds for it to consider the question raised by the United States in connection with the application of minimum specific import duties to imports of footwear as the duties in question had been eliminated before the Panel was established;
(b) The application of the specific duties in force, to the extent that they did not exceed the "ad valorem equivalent" of Argentina's bound rate of 35 per cent under the WTO Agreement, was not inconsistent with Argentina's obligations under Articles II:l(a) and II:1(b) GATT 1994 and Article 7 ATC;
(c) The statistical tax applied by Argentina was consistent with Article VIII GATT 1994.
3.5 On the basis of the above, Argentina requested the Panel to reject the claim by the United States that the measures adopted by Argentina nullified or impaired benefits accruing to the United States.
A. REQUESTS FOR PRELIMINARY RULINGS BY THE PANEL
1. REQUEST OF ARGENTINA FOR A SPECIAL PRELIMINARY RULING REGARDING THE INCLUSION OF THE MEASURES ON FOOTWEAR IN THE SUBMISSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
3.6 Argentina requested the Panel to issue a special preliminary ruling to the effect that there were no grounds for the Panel to examine the claims of the United States regarding an alleged violation of Article II as a result of the application of minimum specific import duties on imports of footwear. According to Argentina, the United States had asked the Panel to find that a measure was inconsistent in spite of the fact that it was no longer in effect at the time when the Panel was established. Argentina asked that its request be examined by the Panel before proceeding to address the question of substance as requested by the United States and continuing with the examination of the case.
(a) Potentiality of a reintroduction of the DIEM on imports of footwear
3.7 The United States argued that Argentina’s revocation of the footwear specific duties during the dispute settlement process should not prevent the Panel from determining that the measures imposing them were contrary to Article II GATT 1994. Previous panels had reviewed the consistency with the GATT of measures no longer in effect.26 Such review was especially appropriate in this case given that Argentina may impose the footwear specific duties again in the future. 27 The likelihood that Argentina would restore its footwear specific duties was indeed considerable. Argentina had repeatedly renewed them in the past, even after having received repeated objections from its trading partners. Argentina also may restore the footwear minimum specific import duties when the provisional measures that replaced them would have expired.
3.8 The United States added that, alternatively, Argentina might reinstate the footwear specific duties should a subsequent panel rule that its "safeguard" measures were improper. There were significant reasons to believe that such a result would occur. The Argentine "safeguard" rested on a weak foundation. The Argentine Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services, in its technical report preceding the imposition of safeguard relief, had found that "critical circumstances would only have occurred if the Minimum Specific Duties had been eliminated".28 Thus, Argentina had triggered the critical circumstances that were a prerequisite to imposing provisional safeguard relief by removing its own purportedly WTO-consistent duties. Not surprisingly, the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services further found that "injury might be attributable less to current imports than to consumption trends and industrial reorganization, which was major" 29. In reaching this conclusion, the Ministry had noted that importation of footwear had declined by 9 per cent in 1994, by 24 per cent in 1995 and by 21 per cent in the first six months of 1996. 30 Moreover, an Argentine administrative law judge had found Argentina’s provisional safeguard duties on footwear to be improper and had suspended their operation. 31
3.9 The United States equally recalled that the EC’s third party submission also detailed the numerous inadequacies in the Argentine safeguard investigation. While the United States did not seek any finding by the Panel on the particular issues in the safeguards investigation, these facts were relevant for the purpose of demonstrating the possibility that Argentina could reinstate the footwear specific duties.
3.10 Argentina argued that the Panel had to be guided by the following considerations: the minimum specific import duties applied by Argentina pursuant to Resolution No. 1696/93 on certain items of footwear had been explicitly revoked by Resolution No. 225/97 of 14 February 1997. The WTO had been officially notified of the revocation 32. Thus, the US claim pertained to the illegality of a measure which had been revoked prior to the establishment of this Panel and the adoption of its terms of reference.
3.11 Argentina contended that the United States' arguments related to the likelihood that Argentina would restore its specific duty regime on imports of footwear represented an effort to sustain facts through a reasoning based on a series of speculations. A safeguard investigation was under way. No definitive measures had been adopted. There had been no challenge under the DSU nor had any panel issued recommendations on the matter. Finally, if Argentina's intention had been to reintroduce the specific import duties on footwear, it would have suspended them rather than revoking them.
3.12 Argentina further argued that the decision to eliminate the DIEM applied to footwear imports had been taken in view of the fact that, in October 1996, the domestic industry had formally requested the application of a safeguard measure. The domestic industry also had provided proof and documentary evidence of the existence of injury caused by increased imports and the existence of critical circumstances, in accordance with the requirements of Decree No. 1059/96 establishing the Regulations concerning the WTO Agreement on Safeguards. 33 The National Foreign Trade Commission had made a preliminary determination of injury based on the absence of minimum specific import duties. The Argentine Government had decided to open an investigation and, at the same time, apply a provisional measure because critical circumstance existed and could have caused damage to the industry which could not have been repaired. The minimum specific import duties had been eliminated because it was illogical to apply safeguard measures in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Agreement and at the same time maintain the previous minimum specific import duties.
3.13 Argentina stated that the investigation concerning the application of a safeguard measure with respect to footwear was following its course. The National Commission for Foreign Trade had produced its report on injury which would be notified to the WTO in accordance with the Agreement on Safeguards. At the same time, the provisional safeguard measure had had its effects partially suspended by a precautionary measure ordered by a judge. Consequently, it was highly unlikely that the revoked measure would be reinstated as suggested by the United States.
3.14 Finally, Argentina replied that the order of the administrative judge to which the United States referred, relating to the provisional safeguard measure for footwear, was precautionary, applied to a specific case, was currently being appealed and had no erga omnes effect. There was nothing whatsoever to suggest that the DIEM might be reintroduced, even if a definitive safeguard measure was not applied or the precautionary measure ordered by a judge was confirmed by the court of appeal. Thus, the conditions mentioned by the United States itself to justify the analysis of the DIEM on footwear by the Panel did not exist. It would not be possible to reinstate the minimum specific import measures for the very reason given by the United States: if the court of appeal were to reject the provisional measure, it would make it absolutely clear for the Argentine Government and for all individuals that any attempt to reintroduce the specific duties would be automatically challenged in courts.
3.15 According to the United States, a review of the Argentine measures imposing footwear specific duties applied until February 1997 also was appropriate because of their close factual connection to the specific duties on textiles and apparel at issue. The footwear duties were part of a broader regime of minimum specific import duties. The measures imposing the footwear as well as the textile and apparel specific duties applied parallel provisions. In some instances, the footwear specific duties and the textile and apparel specific duties had been imposed through the same measure.34 Moreover, the rationale for all of the specific duties was the same 35, and the same GATT provisions applied to all. Accordingly, the United States requested the Panel to find that Argentina’s specific duties on footwear violated Article II before they were revoked.
3.16 Argentina argued that the United States insisted on defining the regime applied to imports of textiles and footwear as a "common legal regime". Such a common legal regime did not exist, since the measures were prepared on the basis of differentiated analyses and formed part of different legal instruments, each one developed according to the characteristics of the market concerned. Even the measures applied, i.e. the DIEM, had to be adjusted to the needs of each tariff heading involved.
3.17 The United States claimed that Argentina had not attempted to rebut the connection established by the United States and the EC between the footwear specific duties and the almost identical duties established under the safeguard procedures.
3.18 Argentina replied that it had clearly shown that these two measures were completely different and separate from each other. The application of a provisional safeguard measure was not the result of an urgent need to give a measure a title in replacement of the DIEM. Even if this had been the case, Argentina would have been legally entitled to do so. In any case, from a legal point of view, it was neither possible nor reasonable to establish a connection between a measure applied under Article II of GATT 1994 and a measure applied under Article XIX, which was by definition an exception to Article II.
3.19 For Argentina, the continuous mention by the United States of the safeguard measure was a way of introducing through the back door a subject which had not been resolved and was not relevant to the context of this Panel. Although it had not gone to the EC's extreme of asking the Panel to rule on the subject, the United States was straying dangerously near to the edge by giving its opinion as to the legality of the safeguard measure while at the same time recognizing that the measure in question was not the subject of this proceeding, thus taking the same contradictory approach as the EC.
3.20 Argentina contended that if the United States had reasons to question the provisional safeguard measure applied by Argentina, it may do so in the appropriate Committee, and had indeed already done so. If the United States felt that any definitive measure that may be adopted would be questionable, it may discuss it in the appropriate forum.
Continue on to Part 2 of Argentina - Measures Affecting Imports of Footwear, Textiles, Apparel and Other Items
1. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.561 of 10 January 1997.
3. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.592 of 24 February 1997.
4. For Derechos de Importación Específicos Mínimos (minimum specific import duties).
5. See, e.g., preambles of Resolutions No. 811/93 (textiles and apparel) and No. 1696/93 (footwear).
6. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 27.692 of 2 August 1993.
7. See Argentina's Schedule LXIV, Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. Members' schedules of concessions are hereafter referred to as their "Schedules".
8. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.050 of 30 December 1994.
9. Boletín Official de la República Argentina, No. 28.301 of 29 December 1995.
10. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.561 of 10 January 1997.
11. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.650 of 20 May 1997.
12. Boletín Official de la República Argentina, No. 27.797 of 30 December 1993.
13. See Resolution No. 1696/93, Article 5.
14. Ibid., Article 7.
15. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina No. 28.561 of 10 January 1997.
16. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.592 of 24 February 1997.
17. Document G/SG/N/6/ARG/1, G/SG/N/7/ARG/1, 25 February 1997.
18. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 26.652 of 12 June 1989.
19. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.050 of 30 December 1994.
20. Decree No. 2277/94 first preambular paragraph. The original in Spanish reads "remover todos aquellos factores que puedan dificultar dicho proceso de apertura e integración económica".
21. Ibid., third preambular paragraph. The original in Spanish reads: "eliminarse todos aquellos factores que pueden dificultar la libre circulacion de bienes".
22. Ibid., fourth preambular paragraph. The original in Spanish reads "neutralizar los efectos que, en el comercio exterior, puede producir la tasa de estadística [...] vigente en [Argentina]".
23. Decree No. 389/95, first preambular paragraph. The original in Spanish reads "prever la recaudación necesaria para contribuir al financiamiento de las actividades aduaneras vinculadas con la registración, computo y sistematización de la información de importación y exportación, con el fin de contar con estadísticas de Comercio Exterior en forma ágil y rápida".
24. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INDEC).
26. The United States referred to the Panel Reports on United States - Measures Affecting Imports of Woven Wool Shirts and Blouses from India, adopted on 23 May 1997, WT/DS33/R, para. 8.1; and EEC - Measures on Animal Feed Proteins, adopted on 14 March 1978, BISD 25S/49.
27. The United States referred to the Panel Report on United States - Prohibition on Imports of Tuna and Tuna Products from Canada, adopted on 22 February 1982, BISD 29S/91, para. 4.3, where the panel found that analysing a measure that had been disinvoked was proper where there was a threat of recurring action.
28. The United States referred to: Argentina Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services - National Commission for External Trade: Preliminary Analysis of Evidence of the Existence of Serious Injury and/or Threat of Serious Injury to Domestic Industry Owing to the Increase in Imports of Footwear, in Response to the Application for Safeguard Measures, CNCE Docket No. 75/96. Annexed to Act No. 266, at para. 12.
29. Ibid., para. 9.
30. Ibid., para. 8.
31. The United States referred to case No. 8.447/97 FILA (Argentina) S.A. et al. v. The National State - Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Utilities - Decree No. 226/97 - About the Proceedings (suspensive order of the judiciary dated 4 June 1997).
32. See documents WT/L/204, 25 February 1997 and WT/L/204 Add.1, 18 March 1997.
33. Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, No. 28.485 of 24 September 1996.
34. The United States referred to Argentina's Presidential Decrees No. 2275/94 and No. 998/95.
35. The United States referred to a letter of the National Director of Industry Affairs explaining the Argentine minimum specific import duties.