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concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment
The United States of America and the Republic of Ecuador (hereinafter the "Parties");
Desiring to promote greater economic cooperation between them, with respect to investment by nationals and companies of one Party in the territory of the other Party;
Recognizing that agreement upon the treatment to be accorded such investment will stimulate the flow of private capital and the economic development of the Parties;
Agreeing that fair and equitable treatment of investment is desirable in order to maintain a stable framework for investment and maximum effective utilization of economic resources;
Recognizing that the development of economic and business ties can contribute to the well-being of workers in both Parties and promote respect for internationally recognized worker rights; and
Having resolved to conclude a Treaty concerning the encouragement and reciprocal protection of investment;
Have agreed as follows:
1. For the purposes of this Treaty,
2. Each Party reserves the right to deny to any company the advantages of this Treaty if nationals of any third country control such company and, in the case of a company of the other Party, that company has no substantial business activities in the territory of the other Party or is controlled by nationals of a third country with which the denying Party does not maintain normal economic relations.
3. Any alteration of the form in which assets are invested or reinvested shall not affect their character as investment.
1. Each Party shall permit and treat investment, and activities associated therewith, on a basis no less favorable than that accorded in like situations to investment or associated activities of its own nationals or companies, or of nationals or companies of any third country, whichever is the most favorable, subject to the right of each Party to make or maintain exceptions falling within one of the sectors or matters listed in the Protocol to this Treaty. Each Party agrees to notify the other Party before or on the date of entry into force of this Treaty of all such laws and regulations of which it is aware concerning the sectors or matters listed in the Protocol. Moreover, each Party agrees to notify the other of any future exception with respect to the sectors or matters listed in the Protocol, and to limit such exceptions to a minimum. Any future exception by either Party shall not apply to investment existing in that sector or matter at the time the exception becomes effective. The treatment accorded pursuant to any exceptions shall, unless specified otherwise in the Protocol be not less favorable than that accorded in like situations to investments and associated activities of nationals or companies of any third country.
2. (a) Nothing in this Treaty shall be construed to prevent a Party from maintaining or establishing a state enterprise.
3. (a) Investment shall at all times be accorded fair and equitable treatment, shall enjoy full protection and security and shall in no case be accorded treatment less than that required by international law.
4. Subject to, the laws relating to the entry and sojourn of aliens, nationals of either Party shall be permitted to enter and to remain in the territory of the other Party for the purpose of establishing, developing, administering or advising on the operation of an investment to which they, or a company of the first Party that employs them, have committed or are in the process of committing a substantial amount of capital or other resources.
5. Companies which are legally constituted under the applicable laws or regulations of one Party, and which are investments, shall be permitted to engage top managerial personnel of their choice, regardless of nationality.
6. Neither Party shall impose performance requirements as a condition of establishment, expansion or maintenance of investments, which require or enforce commitments to export goods produced, or which specify that goods or services must be purchased locally, or which impose any other similar requirements.
7. Each Party shall provide effective means of asserting claims and enforcing rights with respect to investment, investment agreements, and investment authorizations.
8. Each Party shall make public all laws, regulations, administrative practices and procedures, and adjudicatory decisions that pertain to or affect investments.
9. The treatment accorded by the United States of America to investments and associated activities of nationals and companies of the Republic of Ecuador under the provisions of this Article shall in any State, Territory or possession of the United States of America be no less favorable than the treatment accorded therein to investments and associated activities of nationals of the United States of America resident in, and companies legally constituted under the laws and regulations of other States, Territories or possessions of the United States of America.
10. The most favored nation provisions of this Treaty shall not apply to advantages accorded by either Party to nationals or companies of any third country by virtue of:
1. Investments shall not be expropriated or nationalized either directly or indirectly through measures tantamount to expropriation or nationalization ("expropriation") except: for a public purpose; in a nondiscriminatory manner; upon payment of prompt, adequate and effective compensation; and in accordance with due process of law and the general principles of treatment provided for in Article II (3). Compensation shall be equivalent to the fair market value of the expropriated investment immediately before the expropriatory action was taken or became known, whichever is earlier; be calculated in a freely usable currency on the basis of the prevailing market rate of exchange at that time; be paid without delay; include interest at a commercially reasonable rate from the date of expropriation; be fully realizable and be freely transferable.
2. A national or company of either Party that asserts that all or part of its investment has been expropriated shall have a right to prompt review by the appropriate judicial or administrative authorities of the other Party to determine whether any such expropriation has occurred and, if so, whether such expropriation, and any associated compensation, conforms to the principles of international law.
3. Nationals or companies of either Party whose investments suffer losses in the territory of the other Party owing to war or other armed conflict, revolution, state of national emergency, insurrection, civil disturbance or other similar events shall be accorded treatment by such other Party no less favorable than that accorded to its own nationals or companies or to nationals or companies of any third country, whichever is the most favorable treatment, as regards any measures it adopts in relation to such losses.
1. Each Party shall permit all transfers related to an investment to be made freely and without delay into and out of its territory, Such transfers include: (a) returns; (b) compensation pursuant to Article III; (c) payments arising out of an investment dispute; (d) payments made under a contract, including amortization of principal and accrued interest payments made pursuant to a loan agreement; (a) proceeds from the sale or liquidation of all or any part of an investment; and (f) additional contributions to capital for the maintenance or development of an investment.
2. Transfers shall be made in a freely usable currency at the prevailing market rate of exchange on the data of transfer with respect to spot transactions in the currency to be transferred.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, either Party may maintain laws and regulations (a) requiring reports of currency transfer; and (b) imposing income taxes by such means as a withholding tax applicable to dividends or other transfers. Furthermore, either Party may protect the rights of creditors, or ensure the satisfaction of judgments in adjudicatory proceedings, through the equitable, nondiscriminatory and good faith application of its law.
The Parties agree to consult promptly, on the request of either, to resolve any disputes in connection with the Treaty, or to discuss any matter relating to the interpretation or application of the Treaty.
1. For purposes of this Article, an investment dispute is a dispute between a Party and a national or company of the other Party arising out of or relating to (a) an investment agreement between that Party and such national or company; (b) an investment authorization granted by that Party's foreign investment authority to such national or company; or (c) an alleged breach of any right conferred or created by this Treaty with respect to an investment.
2. In the event of an investment dispute, the parties to the dispute should initially seek a resolution through consultation and negotiation. If the dispute cannot be settled amicably, the national or company concerned may choose to submit the dispute, under one of the following alternatives, for resolution:
3. (a) Provided that the national or company concerned has not submitted the dispute for resolution under paragraph 2 (a) or (b) and that six months have elapsed from the data on which the dispute arose, the national or company concerned may choose to consent in writing to the submission of the dispute for settlement by binding arbitration:
4. Each Party hereby consents to the submission of any investment dispute for settlement by binding arbitration in accordance with the choice specified in the written consent of the national or company under paragraph 3. Such consent, together with the written consent of the national or company when given under paragraph 3 shall satisfy the requirement for:
5. Any arbitration under paragraph 3(a) (ii), (iii) or (iv) of this Article shall be held in a state that is a party to the New York Convention.
6. Any arbitral award rendered pursuant to this Article shall be final and binding on the parties to the dispute. Each Party undertakes to carry our without delay the provisions of any such award and to provide in its territory for its enforcement.
7. In any proceeding involving an investment dispute, a Party shall not assert, as a defense, counterclaim, right of set-off or otherwise, that the national or company concerned has received or will receive, pursuant to an insurance or guarantee contract, indemnification or other compensation for all or part of its alleged damages.
8. For purposes of an arbitration held under paragraph 3 of this Article, any company legally constituted under the applicable laws and regulations of a Party or a political subdivision thereof that, immediately before the occurrence of the event or events giving rise to the dispute, was an investment of nationals or companies of the other Party, shall be treated as a national or company of such other Party in accordance with Article 25 (2) (b) of the ICSID Convention.
1. Any dispute between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Treaty which is not resolved through consultations or other diplomatic channels, shall be submitted, upon the request of either Party, to an arbitral tribunal for binding decision in accordance with the applicable rules of international law. In the absence of an agreement by the Parties to the contrary, the arbitration rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), except to the extent modified by the Parties or by the arbitrators, shall govern.
2. Within two months of receipt of a request, each Party shall appoint an arbitrator. The two arbitrators shall select a third arbitrator as Chairman, who is a national of a third State. The UNCITRAL Rules for appointing members of three member panels shall apply mutatis mutandis to the appointment of the arbitral panel except that the appointing authority referenced in those rules shall be the Secretary General of the Centre.
3. Unless otherwise agreed, all submissions shall be made and all hearings shall be completed within six months of the date of selection of the third arbitrator, and the Tribunal shall render its decisions within two months of the date of the final submissions or the date of the closing of the hearings, whichever is later.
4. Expenses incurred by the Chairman, the other arbitrators, and other costs of the proceedings shall be paid for equally by the Parties. The Tribunal may, however, at its discretion, direct that a higher proportion of the costs be paid by one of the Parties.
This Treaty shall not derogate from:
1. This Treaty shall not preclude the application by either Party of measures necessary for the maintenance of public order, the fulfillment of its obligations with respect to the maintenance or restoration of international peace or security, or the protection of its own essential security interests.
2. This Treaty shall not preclude either Party from prescribing special formalities in connection with the establishment of investments, but such formalities shall not impair the substance of any of the rights set forth in this Treaty.
1. With respect to its tax policies, each Party should strive to accord fairness and equity in the treatment of investment of nationals and companies of the other Party.
2. Nevertheless, the provisions of this Treaty, and in particular Article VI and VII, shall apply to matters of taxation only with respect to the following:
This Treaty shall apply to the political subdivisions of the Parties.
1. This Treaty shall enter into force thirty days after the date of exchange of instruments of ratification. It shall remain in force for a period of tan years and shall continue in force unless terminated in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article. It shall apply to investments existing at the time of entry into force as well as to investments made or acquired thereafter.
2. Either Party may, by giving one year's written notice to the other Party, terminate this Treaty at the end of the initial ten year period or at any time thereafter.
3. With respect to investments made or acquired prior to the date of termination of this Treaty and to which this Treaty otherwise applies, the provisions of all of the other Articles of this Treaty shall thereafter continue to be effective for a further period of ten years from such date of termination.
4. The Protocol and Side Letter shall form an integral part of the Treaty.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.
DONE in duplicate at Washington on the twenty-seventh day of August, 1993, in the English and Spanish languages, both texts being equally authentic.
1. The Parties note that the Republic of Ecuador may establish a debt-equity conversion program under which nationals or companies of the United States may choose to invest in the Republic of Ecuador through the purchase of debt at a discount.
The Parties agree that the rights provided in Article IV, paragraph 1, with respect to the transfer of returns and of proceeds from the sale or liquidation of all or any part of an investment, may, as such rights would apply to that part of an investment financed through a debt-equity conversion, be modified by the terms of a debt-equity conversion agreement between a national or company of the United States and the Government of the Republic of Ecuador or any agency or instrumentality thereof.
The transfer of returns and/or proceeds from the sale or liquidation of all or any part of an investment shall in no case be on terms less favorable than those accorded, in like circumstances, to nationals or companies of the Republic of Ecuador or any third country, whichever is more favorable.
2. The United States reserves the right to make or maintain limited exceptions to national treatment, as provided in Article II, paragraph 1, in the sectors or matters it has indicated below:
The treatment accorded pursuant to these exceptions unless specified in paragraph 3 of this Protocol, be not less favorable than that accorded in like situations to investments and associated activities of nationals or companies of any third country.
3. The United States reserves the right to make or maintain limited exceptions to most favored nation treatment, as provided in Article II, paragraph 1, in the sectors or matters it has indicated below:
4. The Republic of Ecuador reserves the right to make or maintain limited exceptions to national treatment, as provided in Article II, paragraph 1, in the sectors or matters it has indicated below:
The treatment accorded pursuant to these exceptions shall be not less favorable than that accorded in like situations to investments and associated activities of nationals or companies of any third country.
THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE
Executive Office of the President
27 August 1993
Dear Mr. Minister:
I have the honor to confirm receipt of your letter which reads as follows:
"I have the honor to confirm the following understanding which was reached between the Government of the Republic of Ecuador and the Government of the United States of America in the course of negotiations of the Treaty Concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment (the "Treaty"):
With respect to Article II, paragraph 4, the Government of the Republic of Ecuador confirms that the Treaty shall serve to satisfy the requirements for any and all authorizations necessary under its laws for nationals of the United States to enter and to remain in the territory of the Republic oil Ecuador for the purpose of establishing, developing, administering or advising on the operation of an investment to which they, or a company of the United States that employs them, have committed or are in the process of committing a substantial amount of capital or other resources. Such authorizations include those granted by the Labor Ministry, such as to waive local training requirements established as a condition to the entry of highly trained and specially qualified employees that are essential to the company's operations. Nationals of the United States, however, can be required to fulfill limited formalities in connection with entry and sojourn in the Republic of Ecuador, including the presentation of a visa application and relevant documentation.
With respect to Article II, paragraph 5, the Government of the Republic of Ecuador confirms that the Treaty shall serve to satisfy the requirements for any and all authorizations necessary under its laws for the engagement of foreign nationals as top managers.
In addition, the Government of the Republic of Ecuador indicates that under the Ecuadorian Constitution, including Article 18, and the laws of the Republic of Ecuador, foreign nationals and companies may need special administrative or other authorizations that are specific to the investments of foreign persons. The Government of the Republic of Ecuador confirms that the Treaty shall serve to satisfy the requirements for any and all such authorizations, except for those sectors or matters in which the Republic of Ecuador may make or maintain limited exceptions to national treatment, as provided in Article II, paragraph I and listed in paragraph 4 of the Protocol.
I have the honor to propose that this understanding be treated as an integral part of the Treaty.
I would be grateful if you would confirm that this understanding is shared by your government."
I have the further honor to confirm that this understanding is shared by my Government and constitutes an integral part of the Treaty.
Washington, D.C., August 27, 1993
I have the honor to confirm the following understanding, which was reached between the Government of Ecuador and the Government of the United States of America in the course of negotiations of the Treaty Concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment (the "Treaty)":
I have the honor to propose that this understanding by treated as an integral part of the Treaty.
I would be grateful if you would confirm that this understanding is shared by your Government.
Accept, Excellency, the assurances of highest consideration.