Guidelines for the External Security Policy of the Andean Community
THE ANDEAN COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
HAVING REVIEWED: Articles 16 and
17 of the Cartagena
Agreement, coded through Decision 563 and
Decision 458 –Guidelines for the
Common External Policy-, the Andean Presidential Council Declarations of
Galápagos, Carabobo and Quirama, and the Lima Commitment –Andean Charter for
Peace and Security, Limitation and Control of the External Defense
WHEREAS: The Heads of State of the Member Countries of the
Andean Community have reaffirmed in several opportunities their commitment to
strengthen the peace, security and cooperation in the subregion, as an
indispensable requirement to promote the integral development of the Andean
To that effect, they commissioned the Andean Council of
Ministers of Foreign Affairs to prepare, with the support of the General
Secretariat, the guidelines for the Andean Common External Security Policy,
giving consideration to the establishment of a peace zone in the Andean
Community pursuant to the parameters of the Lima Commitment;
To comply with such commission, the General Secretariat
carried out, among others, the activities contemplated in the Commitment of
Lima, with the participation of government representatives, experts and broad
sectors of the civil society of the Member Countries of the Andean Community;
Decision 458 contemplates as one of its areas of action the
adoption of joint measures to promote a culture of peace and the pacific
settlement of disputes, the promotion of confidence, specially in border areas,
the limitation of armaments and the development of new regional democratic
The Andean Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs
established that from an Andean perspective, security is seen as the situation
in which the State and society are protected from threats or risks susceptible
of affecting the integral development and welfare of their citizens, including
also the free exercise of their rights and liberties in a fully democratic
environment. In this respect, security is a concept of multidimensional and
comprehensive character that involves political, economic, social and cultural
matters reflected in the policies of so widely different topics, such as the
strengthening of democratic institutions, the Rule of Law, defense, health,
environment, economy, economic development and the prevention of natural
disasters, among others;
The Declaration on the Security of the Americas adopted in
October 2003, within the framework of the Organization of American States
acknowledges the multidimensional character of security and the contribution
that the subregional and regional integration processes are called to make for
the stability of the Hemisphere:
The formulation of the Guidelines of an Andean Common
External Security Policy reaffirms the commitment of the Member Countries to
continue advancing in their efforts to intensify their political cooperation for
the consolidation of the identity and cohesion of the Andean Community, and to
strengthen the participation of the Member Countries in hemispheric and world
security mechanisms; and
Taking into consideration the agreement adopted in the 2nd
Meeting of the High Level Group on matters of Security and Promotion of
Confidence, the General Secretariat has submitted Proposal 124/Rev. 2 on the
Guidelines for the Andean Common External Security Policy;
Article 1.- To approve the following Guidelines for the
Common External Security Policy:
1. To confront any threats posed to the security of the
Andean Community in a cooperative and coordinated manner.
2. To develop and consolidate the Andean Peace Zone, as an
area free of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, promoting mechanisms that
ensure the pacific settlement of disputes, the building of reciprocal
confidence, and that contribute to overcome factors susceptible of generating
disputes among the Member Countries.
3. To prevent, combat and eradicate the new threats to the
security, and their interrelations, when appropriate, through cooperation and
coordination efforts to confront the challenges that such threats represent for
the Andean Community.
4. To contribute to the economic development and social
welfare of the Andean Community population by reinforcing the security of the
5. To contribute to the consolidation and the enhancement of
the Peace Zone and South American Cooperation within the framework of a South
American integration area.
6. To promote the participation of the Member Countries in
the definitions and procedures of the collective, hemispheric and world
The Andean Common External Security Policy will be based on
the following principles.
1. Preservation of the Rule of Law and democracy as the
system of government.
2. Promotion and protection of human rights.
3. Application of the humanitarian international law.
4. Abstention from using or the threat to make use of force
within their reciprocal relations.
5. Pacific settlement of disputes.
6. Respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of
each one of the Member Countries.
7. Nonintervention in internal affairs.
8. Respect for the international law and international
9. Observance of the collective security systems of the
United Nations and the Organization of American States.
10. Development and security cooperation.
11. Strengthening of the integration process.
12. Ban on the development, manufacture, possession, display
and use of any type of mass destruction weapons, and their transit through the
1. Peace and security as public property that pursuant to the
national legislation the State guarantees to its citizenship.
2. Andean identity and community interests.
3. Territorial continuity of the community area.
4. Solidarity and cooperation among the Member Countries.
The Andean Common External Security Policy will contemplate
the following criteria:
1. Peace option: Its purpose is to prevent and fight
against any threats to security within a democratic and non offensive conception
of the External security and to promote the necessary conditions to ensure free
and equal opportunities for its population and a favorable environment for its
material and spiritual realization.
2. Multidimensional: Includes the threats to defense and
to the establishment of democratic institutions and public security.
3. Integrated: The plans and programs to be developed
within the framework of the Andean Common External Security Policy are
supplemented and mutually reinforced with actions aimed at its economic and
social sustainable development, the strengthening of democratic institutions,
the promotion and protection of human rights and the achievement of the best
competitive terms for the participation of the Member Countries in the world
4. Complementariness: This is a community instrument to
strengthen the application of national security policies and to favor, when
appropriate, their convergence and harmonization.
5. Cooperative: Seeks to develop a system of relations to
strengthen the capacity and effectiveness of each one of the Member Countries
for the enhancement of confidence and the prevention of tensions or
6. Flexible: Its application is adapted to the dynamics
of the Andean, regional, hemispheric and world context, and the changes in the
perceptions and conceptions on the matter, preserving the coherence of its
objectives and actions.
7. Gradual: It allows a gradual progress in the
priorities of the community, and the regional, hemispheric and world security
agendas, in accordance with the common interests.
8. Preventive: Seeks to anticipate the development of
threats to security through early warning and response mechanisms, and the
pacific settlement of disputes.
9. Participatory: Acknowledges that security is a task of
society as a whole without detriment to the fundamental responsibility of the
State. Therefore, it should provide opportunities for the active participation
of the several public and private bodies and agents in the decision making
process concerning its design, execution, follow-up and verification.
V. Institutional mechanisms
1. The Andean Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs is the
body responsible for the definition and coordination of the Andean Common
External Security Policy. When deemed convenient, it will hold joint meetings
with the Ministers of Defense, and when appropriate, with the competent
authorities of the Member Countries for a further dialog and agreement on
several aspects of such policy. The Council will contemplate at least once every
year the aspects related to the execution of the common external security
2. The Executive Council of the Andean Common External
Security Policy, in which Senior Officials of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs
and Defense will have a seat, and as appropriate, other competent sectors on
security matters, will be responsible together with the General Secretariat of
the Andean Community, and other Andean Committees with responsibilities
connected with security topics, for the design of operation proposals and
community provisions related to this policy and its submission for its
consideration by the Andean Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs. The
Executive Committee can create the specialized technical subcommittees it may
deem pertinent. It will meet at least twice every year.
3. The Andean Security Network will be constituted by
political, business, academic, and other organizations of the civil society
together with the governmental and intergovernmental organizations of the
subregion. It will be in charge of promoting national intersectorial and
subregional dialogs in which public and private organizations will accompany the
design, implementation and evaluation of the progress made in the development of
the Andean Common External Security Policy.
4. The General Secretariat of the Andean Community will be
responsible for the follow up of the execution of the Andean Common External
VI. Operation Instruments
The Andean Common External Security Policy will be provided
with the following instruments:
1. The Common External Policy, aimed at promoting the
international conditions for the compliance with the objectives of the Andean
Common External Security Policy, the maintenance of peace and regional and
international security, and also a coordinated action in the regional and world
2. The Andean Cooperation Plan against Illicit Drugs and
Connected Offenses, Decision 505, and the Operation Programs adopted within such
3. The Andean Plan for the Prevention, Fight and Eradication
of the Illicit Traffic of Small and Lightweight Arms in all its aspects, and its
Coordinated Action and Operation Plan, Decision 552.
4. The Customs Cooperation in aspects connected with external
security and defense.
It will also incorporate to the operation instruments:
5. The Andean Plan Against Terrorism.
6. The Andean frameworks for the legal, police and judicial
7. The Andean Framework for the Pacific Settlement of
Disputes and the development and application of Measures for the Promotion of
Confidence and Security.
8. Other plans and programs that may be established in the
future, specially, with a view to fight, among others, corruption, smuggling and
the traffic of persons, and also to implement a standardized method for the
measurement of defense expenditures.
VII. Forms of Action
The agenda of the Andean Common External Security Policy
includes the following forms of action:
1. Community: the actions implemented by the Member
Countries or through or by means of the community bodies of the integration
2. Subregional: the actions implemented jointly by two
or more Member Countries as a result of subregional coordination;
3. Bilateral: the actions exclusively implemented by
two Member Countries to comply with national goals and objectives consistent
with the Andean Common External Security Policy;
4. National: the actions implemented by a Member
Country in its respective territory within the framework of the Andean
coordination, with a view to comply with the goals and objectives of the
programs included in the Andean Common External Security Policy;
5. External: the coordinated or joint action with the
international, regional, hemispheric and world organizations or conferences on
matters of security and disarmament.
The agenda of the Andean Common External Security Policy
includes cooperation in the following topics:
1. Pacific settlement of disputes.
2. Promotion of measures to foster confidence and security.
3. Promotion of a Peace Culture.
4. Defense expenditures.
5. Fight against terrorism.
6. Fight against organized crime, its activities and
manifestations to the detriment of citizenship and state security.
7. Fight against the world drug problem and related offenses.
8. Laundering of assets.
9. Fight against corruption.
10. Prevention, fight and eradication of the illicit traffic
of small and lightweight arms in all its aspects.
11. Traffic in persons.
12. Prevention of threats to democratic stability and
13. Collective, hemispheric and world security.
14. Regional and world disarmament negotiations.
15. Other matters that may be decided by the Andean Council
of Ministers of Foreign Affairs.
Article 2.- At the community, South American, hemispheric
and world level, the Andean Common External Security Policy is executed by the
Andean Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs applying the different mechanisms
of the Common External Policy.
At a national level, the Andean Common External Security
Policy will be executed through the competent authorities, pursuant to the
Article 3.- To commission the Executive Committee of the
Andean Common External Policy to prepare in coordination with the General
a) An Andean Program of Measures for the Promotion of
Confidence and Security taking into consideration the advances made by the
Member Countries in their neighborhood relations, and the Lima Commitment, the
Declarations of Santiago (1995) and San Salvador (1998), and the Consensus of
Miami (February 2003). The medium term objective of the Program should be the
joint planning of the peace and security of the subregion incorporating
formulas that allow the participation of the Andean countries in peace
maintenance operations, under the mandate of the United Nations. To that
effect, it will contemplate actions at the bilateral, subregional, regional,
hemispheric and world levels.
A proposal for the creation of an Andean Security Network,
as an institutional mechanism for support and advisory on security related
matters and for promotion of confidence, that will include, among others, a
diagnosis of potentially conflictive situations, early warnings, conflict
prevention and crisis management, as well as information systems on such
situations or declared conflicts. This will be accomplished through national
and subregional dialogs, with the participation of representatives from the
pertinent government agencies, political parties, academic institutions and
Article 4.- To commission the General Secretariat to
prepare in coordination with the competent national authorities, international
specialized agencies and other cooperation sources, the proposal for an Andean
cooperation program against laundering of assets.
Given in the city of Quito, Republic of Ecuador, on July 10, 2004.