Andean Cooperation Plan for the Control of
Illegal Drugs and Related Offenses
THE ANDEAN COUNCIL OF FOREIGN MINISTERS
Article 16 of the Cartagena Agreement and
Decision 458 "Common Foreign Policy
BEARING IN MIND: The agreement approved by the Presidents of the
Andean Countries at the meeting held on April 17, 2001 in Cartagena, Colombia;
Illegal drug production, traffic, and consumption, asset laundering,
diversion and smuggling of chemical precursors, and arms trafficking seriously
threaten the development and security of the Andean countries;
The efforts being made today by the Andean countries under their respective
national programs for the control of illegal drugs and related offenses can be
significantly boosted and supplemented through an Andean Cooperation Plan to
intensify national, bilateral, and Community measures in this area;
The international community can wage an integrated campaign against the
worldwide illegal drug problem that could cover all of the aspects involved in
illegal drug production, traffic, and consumption and related offenses, based
on the principle of shared responsibility;
The Andean strategy for the control of illegal drugs and related offenses, as
well as international efforts in this area, should be carried out with full
respect for national law and sovereignty.
Sole article. –
To approve the Andean Cooperation Plan for the Control of
Illegal Drugs and Related Offenses set out in the document attached to this
Signed in the city of Valencia, Venezuela, on the twenty-second of June of two
thousand and one.
ANDEAN COOPERATION PLAN FOR THE CONTROL OF ILLEGAL
DRUGS AND RELATED
Principles and Objectives
The Andean Cooperation Plan for the Control of Illegal Drugs and Related
1. Is grounded in the conviction that illegal drug production, trafficking,
and consumption is a worldwide problem that seriously threatens the
development and security of the Andean countries and of the international
community. Recognizes that this is one of the most harmful and dangerous forms
of organized transnational crime, that makes use of the globalizing logic of
the markets, disrupts the social dynamic, distorts the economy, undermines the
state of law, and subverts the public order.
2. Is comprehensive and encompasses all of the aspects of the worldwide drug
problem and related offenses: prevention, interdiction, reduction of illicit
crops, and alternative development, as well as the control of the diversion of
chemical precursors, asset laundering, and the traffic in arms, ammunition,
3. In this connection, it is based on the shared responsibility of each and
every one of the actors involved in creating the problem and, as a result, in
the search for solutions to it at both the Andean Subregional level and the
South American, hemispheric, and world levels.
4. Is respectful of national legislation and territorial sovereignty and
integrity, as well as of the strict observance of International Law and is
implemented through cooperation and solidarity. That cooperation is inherent
to the shared nature of the problem and, consequently, should be mutual,
voluntary and not subject to limitations or requirements that set conditions
on the unhampered involvement of the wills of the parties. The solidarity, for
its part, is an expression of the recognition that national and Subregional
drug control efforts should be accompanied by international cooperation in
order to reinforce democracy and the exercise of human rights and at the same
time promote the sustainable economic and social development of the Andean
5. Seeks to strengthen and step up national programs in each of the Andean
Countries through coordination, cooperation, and the exchange of experiences
among the Member Countries and by taking joint action in dealing with third
countries and in international forums.
6. Is a key issue of Andean political cooperation that links up the common
foreign policy, Community border integration and development policy,
sustainable development policy, the Andean Social Agenda, and security and
confidence-building efforts in the Subregion, as applicable.
7. It is proposed that the Andean Community be consolidated as the moving
force for a South American and hemispheric strategy for the control of illegal
drugs and related offenses.
1. The Andean Council of Foreign Ministers is the body responsible for
defining, coordinating, and following up the Andean Cooperation Plan for the
Control of Illegal Drugs and Related Offenses.
2. An Executive Committee will be set up, formed of high-level officials of
the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and the national officers responsible for
controlling illegal drugs and related offenses, including representatives of
the security bodies.
3. The Executive Committee may establish subcommittees and working groups
specializing in the different aspects of the Andean Plan. The Subcommittees
and working groups may be made up of two or more Member Countries and will be
open to the participation of the others.
4. The Andean Community General Secretariat will act as the Executive
Committee’s Technical Secretariat.
Program of Action
1. The Program of Action will be approved by decision of the Andean Council of
Foreign Ministers and will cover a two-year period.
2. The Executive Committee will draw up the Operating Plans for carrying out
the Program of Action and every two years will propose the updating of that
program to the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers.
3. It will be the Executive Committee’s responsibility to coordinate, oversee,
and evaluate the Program of Action, with the assistance of the General
PROGRAM OF ACTION
I. REINFORCEMENT OF NATIONAL STRATEGIES
A. Control of the production, smuggling, and diversion of chemical
1. Implement the mechanism for reporting the export of controlled chemical
substances prior to their shipment and the timely answers from the intended
country of destination, pursuant to article 12 of the 1988 Vienna Convention.
2. Reinforce the monitoring of enterprises that produce, use, and/or sell
controlled chemical substances in order to avoid their diversion for the
production of illegal drugs.
3. Strengthen the mechanisms for detecting controlled chemical substances and
train the pertinent officials to identify those substances.
4. Make the measures for controlling the illegal production and smuggling of
controlled chemical substances stronger.
5. Set up and/or reinforce the mechanisms for controlling the transport and
diversion of chemical substances in the national territory through the
following, among other things:
a) The use of customs documents containing the generic name and corresponding
tariff code for trade in the controlled chemical substances.
b) The establishment of a system of labeling and safety sealing that would
make it difficult to divert packaged or bottled products by replacing them.
6. Create and/or update the national register of firms that import and export
controlled chemical substances. That information will be made available to
whoever asks for it.
7. Identify the needs of the legitimate industries dealing with potassium
permanganate, acetic anhydride, and the substances included in the Andean
Community’s control operations.
8. Develop inter-sector coordination for the purpose of identifying new
substances used in drug production for possible inclusion on the list of
controlled substances following a study of their level of use.
B. Technical eradication of illegal crops
1. Build up national capacities to implement programs for the technical
eradication of illegal crops by hand or by air, in the countries that need it,
keeping in mind the environmental standards established by the competent
2. Identify illegal crop growing areas, their size, evolution, features, zones
of influence, and any other relevant information.
3. Contribute to the coordination between the authorities responsible for
execution of the eradication programs and those in charge of the alternative
4. Promote the establishment of agreements between local communities and
public authorities as a means of reducing crops grown for illegal purposes and
introducing alternative products.
C. Alternative Development.
1. Create the necessary economic, social, and cultural conditions to make it
feasible to replace the illegal crop production-based economy and to bring
farmers into the legal economy.
2. Identify and establish the characteristics of the populations of the
illegal crop growing areas and their zones of influence.
3. Design and put into use financial, economic, and technological instruments
for supporting national alternative development programs, including private
investment promotion, market opening, and the incorporation into alternative
production of products with a larger value added.
4. Boost the strengthening of grass-roots organizations and give them support
through consciousness-raising, training, and communication processes.
5. Step up the national capacity to offer basic social services and develop
the economic infrastructure in the illegal crop growing areas and their zones
6. Design and implement social communication strategies to discourage the
involvement of farm and native families with illegal crops and promote
D. Dismantling of the production and transport infrastructure and
1. Reinforce the mechanisms for coordination among the police and military
forces and state security bodies, the Public Ministry and/or the Attorney
General’s Office, and the Judiciary.
2. Build up the capacity for action of the intelligence units specialized in
the control of drug trafficking and ensure the timely exchange of information
among the various competent national authorities.
3. Increase the human, material, financial, and technological resources
allocated to the specialized units responsible for controlling drug
4. Strengthen the mechanisms for detecting illegal drug production
laboratories and hidden airstrips.
5. Buttress the system for controlling illegal drug trafficking by sea, river,
air, and land.
6. Create and/or reinforce the control mechanisms in order to impede illegal
trafficking in arms, ammunition, explosives, and other similar materials.
E. Asset laundering
1. Establish and/or build up the national intelligence and financial analysis
2. Identify the existing types or methods of asset laundering and create the
corresponding control mechanisms.
3. Train specialized personnel in the agencies responsible for detecting and
controlling asset laundering operations.
4. Investigate the sectors capable of use for activities connected with asset
laundering and link them up with the intelligence and financial analysis
5. Design and implement mechanisms for administrative control of international
6. Criminalize asset laundering as an autonomous offense, so that it will
encompass other criminal behavior (vehicle theft, extortion, kidnapping, white
slavery, trafficking in human organs, and arms trafficking).
7. Strengthen the application of provisions on the seizure of goods procured
as a result of drug trafficking or related offenses.
8. Establish regulations on the prevention of asset laundering in free trade
areas and at free ports.
F. Reduction of the demand
1. Put a stop to the rising trend in illegal drug consumption, especially
among children and young people, with schooling or not, through programs
targeting the family, community, and school.
2. Develop a mass media strategy to inform, sensitize, and educate young
people about the consequences of drug consumption, giving special emphasis to
the synthetic or designer drugs that have recently appeared on the scene.
3. Incorporate more information about prevention in the curriculums at the
different educational levels and educate parents and educational agents in the
new trends in illegal drug consumption.
4. Promote programs for the rehabilitation and social reinsertion of
5. Implement mechanisms for overseeing and evaluating programs to cut down the
demand for drugs.
6. Design and launch programs to give human resources preparation and training
in prevention and rehabilitation.
7. Boost and support the participation of civil organizations in prevention
and rehabilitation activities.
II. REINFORCEMENT OF BINATIONAL STRATEGIES
1. Evaluate the existing bilateral drug control agreements, update and perfect
them, and put them into force.
2. Promote and strengthen bilateral mechanisms, such as the mixed commissions,
border workshops, and neighborhood committees, in order to draw up border
action plans for:
a. Controlling the traffic in drugs and controlled chemical substances.
b. Giving border authorities training in subjects connected with drug control.
c. Carrying out combined interdiction operations.
d. Stepping-up the exchange of information and coordination of logistics among
e. Controlling the illegal traffic in firearms, ammunition, and other similar
3. Incorporate alternative development projects in the Border Integration
Zones and include them in the Project Bank to be set up as part of the Andean
Integration and Development Policy.
4. Institute effective mechanisms to control trafficking in illegal drugs,
controlled chemical substances, arms, ammunition, and other related materials,
through the National and Binational Border Service Centers (NBSC and BBSC).
5. Periodically examine and evaluate the execution and efficiency of the
binational cooperation measures that are carried out under this Andean
III. COMMUNITY STRATEGY
1. Establish an Andean mechanism for exchanging information through the Andean
Community website about the methods of trafficking in and diversion of
controlled chemical substances, use of new substances, successful control
operations, updated national registers of enterprises that import and export
controlled chemical substances, and changes in the importance and use of
border crossings for the illegal trafficking in those substances, and promote
the use of other national, regional and international computerized systems,
such as Unidos contra Drogas (UCD) and the Venezuelan, inter-American, and
European drug observatories.
2. Step up the exchange of intelligence among the competent authorities of the
Andean countries, among others, making more use of existing communication
mechanisms, such as the Regional Liaison Offices of the World Customs
Organization (RILO) and the Inter-American Telecommunications Network for Drug
Control (RETCOD), in order to back regional efforts to control drugs, related
offenses, and the arms traffic.
3. Establish closer coordination among the national authorities responsible
for drug control in the Member Countries, among others, by appointing national
liaison officers in the respective institutions and assigning new duties to
the police and military attachés’ offices, as applicable, to support this
Andean Cooperation Plan.
4. Promote the training in common of national drug control officials through,
among others, the Andean Community’s Regional Antidrug Intelligence School (ERCAIAD),
ensuring its appropriate funding and adjusting its curriculum to the
priorities of the Andean Strategy, and supporting the establishment and
activation of the Andean Anti-drug Canine Training School.
5. Contribute to the signing of legal assistance agreements on criminal
matters and step up the execution of existing agreements, including procedures
for the extradition of defendants accused of drug trafficking or related
offenses under the existing accords.
6. In each Member Country, appoint as liaison officers investigating judges
who are empowered to answer requests for reciprocal legal assistance in drug
trafficking cases or to remit them to the competent authorities for
7. Contribute to harmonizing national criminal and procedural legislation
through periodic meetings of the Ministers of Justice of the Andean Community,
bearing in mind the work that is being done under the aegis of the mechanism
between the European Union and the Andean Community on coordination and
cooperation in drug matters.
8. Promote the exchange of experiences and undertake joint actions to back
alternative development programs, incorporating for that purpose the Andean
Committee for Alternative Development (CADA) as the Andean Cooperation Plan’s
specialized body on the subject and supporting its efforts.
9. Reinforce cooperation in order to prevent and control asset laundering at
the Andean level through the exchange of experiences and interlinkage of the
Financial Intelligence Analysis Units of the countries in the Subregion and
other competent bodies.
10. Implement the guidelines established by the Inter-American System of
Standardized Drug Consumption Data (SIDUC) and entrust the analysis to the
Hipólito Unanue Convention (CONHU), so that the Andean Community can have data
on which it can draw to prepare prevention strategies that are attuned to its
11. Develop a joint strategy for preventing drug consumption and production
and controlling synthetic and designer drugs.
12. Identify the international technical cooperation requirements and
capacities and establish a mechanism for horizontal cooperation among the
13. Design and carry out joint strategies for mobilizing international
technical and financial cooperation to support the measures provided for in
the Andean Strategy for the control of drugs and related offenses, as well as
debt-for-alternative development program support swaps.
14. Apply for the renewal and expansion of the programs of trade preferences
in support of drug control that benefit the Member Countries and obtain
conditions for preferential access to other markets and the removal of
restrictions on their full use.
15. Promote the mobilization of international cooperation for programs to
prevent and alleviate the environmental impact of the illegal drug problem,
including the recovery of ecosystems and conservation of the biodiversity.
16. Further international cooperation, in particular through the organization
of donor groups in order to boost alternative development, create jobs in
production, and alleviate poverty in illegal drug crop growing areas, in areas
from which labor is migrating, and in areas that are highly prone to use for
17. Coordinate joint drug control positions in dealing with third countries
and in international forums and organizations as part of the Andean Common
18. Update the "Rodrigo Lara Bonilla" Convention on cooperation for preventing
drug abuse and for suppressing the illegal traffic in narcotic drugs and
psychotropic substances, in order to adjust it to the needs created by this
Andean Cooperation Plan.
19. Examine and evaluate, as a Community, the implementation and effectiveness
of the measures that are carried out under this Andean Cooperation Plan.