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WORLD TRADE
ORGANIZATION

WT/DS231/AB/R
26 September 2002

(02-5137)

 
  Original: English

European Communities - Trade Description of Sardines
 

AB-2002-3


Report of the Appellate Body


  1. Introduction
     
  2. Arguments of the Participants and the Third Participants 
  1. Claims of Error by the European Communities - Appellant 
  1. Procedural Issues 
     
  2. The Characterization of the EC Regulation as a "Technical Regulation" 
     
  3. The Temporal Scope of Application of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement  
     
  4. The Characterization of Codex Stan 94 as a "Relevant International Standard"
     
  5. Whether Codex Stan 94 was Used "As a Basis For" the EC Regulation
     
  6. The Question of the "Ineffectiveness or Inappropriateness" of Codex Stan 94
     
  7. The Objectivity of the Assessment of Certain Facts by the Panel
     
  8. The References in the Panel Report to Trade-Restrictiveness
     
  9. Completing the Legal Analysis
  1. Arguments of Peru - Appellee
  1. Procedural Issues
     
  2. The Characterization of the EC Regulation as a "Technical Regulation"
     
  3. The Temporal Scope of Application of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement
     
  4. The Characterization of Codex Stan 94 as a "Relevant International Standard"
     
  5. Whether Codex Stan 94 was Used "As a Basis For" the EC Regulation
     
  6. The Question of the "Ineffectiveness or Inappropriateness" of Codex Stan
     
  7. The Objectivity of the Assessment of Certain Facts by the Panel
     
  8. The References in the Panel Report to Trade-Restrictiveness
     
  9. Completing the Legal Analysis
  1. Arguments of the Third Participants
  1. Canada
     
  2. Chile 
     
  3. Ecuador
     
  4. United States
     
  5. Venezuela
  1. Issues Raised in this Appeal
     
  2. Procedural Issues
  1. Admissibility of Appeal
     
  2. amicus curiae Briefs
  1. The Characterization of the EC Regulation as a "Technical Regulation"
     
  2. The Temporal Scope of Application of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement
     
  3. The Characterization of Codex Stan 94 as a "Relevant International Standard"
  1. The European Communities' Argument that Consensus is Required
     
  2. The European Communities' Argument on the Product Coverage of Codex Stan 94
  1. Whether Codex Stan 94 Was Used "As a Basis For" the EC Regulation
     
  2. The Question of the "Ineffectiveness or Inappropriateness" of Codex Stan 94
  1. The Burden of Proof
     
  2. Whether Codex Stan 94 is an Effective and Appropriate Means to Fulfil the "Legitimate Objectives" Pursued by the European Communities Through the EC Regulation
  1. The Interpretation of the Second Part of Article 2.4
     
  2. The Application of the Second Part of Article 2.4
  1. The Objectivity of the Assessment of Certain Facts by the Panel
     
  2. The References in the Panel Report to Trade-Restrictiveness
     
  3. Completing the Legal Analysis
     
  4. Findings and Conclusions


WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
APPELLATE BODY

European Communities - Trade Description of Sardines

AB-2002-3


European Communities, Appellant
Peru, Appellee

Canada, Third Participant
Chile, Third Participant
Ecuador, Third Participant
United States, Third Participant
Venezuela, Third Participant

Present:

Bacchus, Presiding Member
Abi-Saab, Member
Baptista, Member

I. Introduction

1. The European Communities appeals from certain issues of law and legal interpretations in the Panel Report, European Communities - Trade Description of Sardines (the "Panel Report").1

2. This dispute concerns the name under which certain species of fish may be marketed in the European Communities. The measure at issue is Council Regulation (EEC) 2136/89 (the "EC Regulation"), which was adopted by the Council of the European Communities on 21 June 1989 and became applicable on 1 January 1990.2 The EC Regulation sets forth common marketing standards for preserved sardines.

3. Article 2 of the EC Regulation provides that:

Only products meeting the following requirements may be marketed as preserved sardines and under the trade description referred to in Article 7:

- they must be covered by CN codes 1604 13 10 and ex

1604 20 50;

- they must be prepared exclusively from fish of the species "Sardina pilchardus Walbaum";

- they must be pre-packaged with any appropriate covering medium in a hermetically sealed container;

- they must be sterilized by appropriate treatment. (emphasis added)

4. Sardina pilchardus Walbaum ("Sardina pilchardus "), the fish species refered to in the EC Regulation, is found mainly around the coasts of the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean, in the Mediterranean Sea, and in the Black Sea.3

5. In 1978, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the "Codex Commission"), of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, adopted a world-wide standard for preserved sardines and sardine-type products, which regulates matters such as presentation, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, hygiene and handling, labelling, sampling, examination and analyses, defects and lot acceptance. This standard, CODEX STAN 94-1981, Rev.1-1995 ("Codex Stan 94"), covers preserved sardines or sardine-type products prepared from the following 21 fish species:

- Sardina pilchardus

- Sardinops melanostictus, S. neopilchardus, S. ocellatus,

S. sagax[,] S. caeruleus

- Sardinella aurita, S. brasiliensis, S. maderensis, S. longiceps, S. gibbosa

- Clupea harengus

- Sprattus sprattus

- Hyperlophus vittatus

- Nematalosa vlaminghi

- Etrumeus teres

- Ethmidium maculatum

- Engraulis anchoita, E. mordax, E. ringens

- Opisthonema oglinum.4

6. Section 6 of Codex Stan 94 provides as follows:

6. LABELLING

In addition to the provisions of the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1 1985, Rev. 3 1999) the following special provisions apply:

6.1 NAME OF THE FOOD

The name of the product shall be:

6.1.1 (i) "Sardines" (to be reserved exclusively for Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum)); or

(ii) "X sardines" of a country, a geographic area, the species, or the common name of the species in accordance with the law and custom of the country in which the product is sold, and in a manner not to mislead the consumer.

6.1.2 The name of the packing medium shall form part of the name of the food.

6.1.3 If the fish has been smoked or smoke flavoured, this information shall appear on the label in close proximity to the name.

6.1.4 In addition, the label shall include other descriptive terms that will avoid misleading or confusing the consumer.5 (emphasis added)

7. Peru exports preserved products prepared from Sardinops sagax sagax ("Sardinops sagax "), one of the species of fish covered by Codex Stan 94. This species is found mainly in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, along the coasts of Peru and Chile.6

8. Sardina pilchardus and Sardinops sagax both belong to the Clupeidae family and the Clupeinae subfamily. As their scientific name suggests, however, they belong to different genus. Sardina pilchardus belongs to the genus Sardina, while Sardinops sagax belongs to the genus Sardinops.7 Additional factual aspects of this dispute are set forth in paragraphs 2.1-2.9 of the Panel Report.

9. The Panel in this dispute was established on 24 July 2001. Before the Panel, Peru argued that the EC Regulation is inconsistent with Articles 2.4, 2.2 and 2.1 of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (the "TBT Agreement ") and Article III:4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (the "GATT 1994").8

10. In the Panel Report circulated to Members of the World Trade Organization (the "WTO") on 29 May 2002, the Panel found that the EC Regulation is inconsistent with Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement , and exercised judicial economy in respect of Peru's claims under Articles 2.2 and 2.1 of the TBT Agreement and III:4 of the GATT 1994.9 The Panel, therefore, recommended that the Dispute Settlement Body (the "DSB") request the European Communities to bring its measure into conformity with its obligations under the TBT Agreement.10

11. On 25 June 2002, the European Communities notified the DSB of its intention to appeal certain issues of law covered in the Panel Report and certain legal interpretations developed by the Panel, pursuant to Article 16.4 of the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (the "DSU"), and filed a Notice of Appeal with the Appellate Body pursuant to Rule 20 of the Working Procedures for Appellate Review (the "Working Procedures"). On 27 June 2002, we received a communication from Peru requesting a Preliminary Ruling pursuant to Rule 16(1) of the Working Procedures . Peru requested that we exclude from the appeal four of the nine points raised in the European Communities' Notice of Appeal, because these points allegedly did not meet the requirements of Rule 20(2)(d) of the Working Procedures.

12. In a letter dated 27 June 2002, we invited the European Communities and the third parties to submit, by 2 July 2002, written comments on the issues raised by Peru in its Request for a Preliminary Ruling.

13. On 28 June 2002, the European Communities sent letters to the Chairman of the DSB and to the Appellate Body, indicating its intention to withdraw the Notice of Appeal of 25 June 2002, pursuant to Rule 30 of the Working Procedures , conditionally on the right to file a new Notice of Appeal. The European Communities filed a new Notice of Appeal on the same day.

14. In a letter dated 1 July 2002, we informed the participants and third parties that neither the European Communities nor the third parties should file written submissions on the issues raised in the Request for a Preliminary Ruling submitted by Peru.

15. Peru submitted a letter, dated 2 July 2002, in which it challenged the right of the European Communities to withdraw conditionally the Notice of Appeal of 25 June 2002, and to file a second Notice of Appeal on 28 June 2002.

16. On 4 July 2002, we informed the participants and third parties that it was our intention to conduct the appellate proceedings in conformity with the Working Schedule drawn up further to the Notice of Appeal of 28 June 2002, without prejudice to the right of the participants and the third participants to present in their submissions arguments relating to the matters raised in Peru's letter dated 2 July 2002.

17. The European Communities filed an appellant's submission on 8 July 2002.11 Peru filed an appellee's submission on 23 July 2002.12 Ecuador filed a third participant's submission on 22 July 2002.13 Canada, Chile, the United States, and Venezuela filed third participant's submissions on 23 July 2002.14

18. On 23 July 2002, we received a letter from Colombia indicating that, although it would not file a third participant's submission, it had an interest in attending the oral hearing in this appeal. Colombia had participated in the proceedings before the Panel as a third party which had notified its interest to the DSB under Article 10.2 of the DSU. By letter of 7 August 2002, we informed the participants and third participants that we were inclined to allow Colombia to attend the oral hearing as a passive observer, and to notify us if they had any objection. The European Communities had no objection to Colombia attending the oral hearing as a third participant, but did object to Colombia attending as a passive observer. Ecuador had no objection to Colombia attending the hearing, but found there was no legal basis to apply a passive observer status and deny them the right to attend as a third participant. On 9 August 2002, we informed the participants and third participants that Colombia would be permitted to attend the oral hearing as a passive observer.

19. An amicus curiae brief was received, on 18 July 2002, from a private individual. The Kingdom of Morocco also filed an amicus curiae brief on 22 July 2002. In a letter dated 26 July 2002, Peru objected to the acceptance and consideration of both amicus curiae briefs. Ecuador expressed similar objections in a letter received on 2 August 2002. Canada submitted a letter, on 26 July 2002, requesting that we decide whether or not to accept the briefs in advance of the oral hearing.

20. By letter of 31 July 2002, the participants and third participants were informed that they would have an opportunity to address the issues relating to the amicus curiae briefs during the oral hearing, without prejudice to their legal status or to any action the we might take in connection with these briefs.

21. The oral hearing in the appeal was held on 13 August 2002. The participants and third participants presented oral arguments and responded to questions put to them by Members of the Division hearing the appeal.

II. Arguments of the Participants and the Third Participants

A. Claims of Error by the European Communities - Appellant

1. Procedural Issues

22. The European Communities argues that the preliminary objections raised by Peru on the adequacy of the Notice of Appeal filed by the European Communities on 25 June 2002 are now moot and settled. The European Communities responded to this objection by Peru with its letter to the Appellate Body of 28 June 2002 and the replacement of that Notice of Appeal with a new one of the same day. The European Communities asserts that, in conditionally withdrawing its initial Notice of Appeal and then filing a new Notice of Appeal, it proceeded in conformity with the DSU, the Working Procedures and previous practice.

23. The European Communities also underscores that it proceeded expeditiously and that the issues listed in the Notice of Appeal of 28 June 2002 were identical to those in the Notice of Appeal of 25 June 2002. The only difference between the two Notices of Appeal is that the Notice of Appeal of 28 June 2002 included additional information on the issues being appealed, which was provided in response to Peru's request.

24. The European Communities asserts that it is absolutely clear that Peru's rights of defence have not been harmed in any way by the replacement of the original Notice of Appeal with a new one and by the new Working Schedule drawn up by the Appellate Body. It also rejects Peru's allegation that the European Communities was engaging in litigation tactics.

25. The European Communities states that, in any event, the objection submitted by Peru on 27 June 2002 was clearly unfounded.

2. The Characterization of the EC Regulation as a "Technical Regulation"

26. The European Communities acknowledges that the EC Regulation is a "technical regulation" for purposes of the TBT Agreement , because it lays down product characteristics for preserved Sardina pilchardus . The European Communities claims, however, that the Panel erred in finding that the EC Regulation is a "technical regulation" relating to preserved Sardinops sagax .

27. According to the European Communities, the EC Regulation does not lay down product characteristics for Sardinops sagax . The European Communities thus argues that, with respect to Sardinops sagax , the EC Regulation does not apply to an identifiable product as required by the Appellate Body in European Communities - Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products ("EC - Asbestos ").15

28. The European Communities also argues that a name-as opposed to a label-is not a product characteristic for purposes of the definition of a "technical regulation" in the TBT Agreement . It explains that the requirement to state the name of a product on a label is a labelling requirement. In its view, however, the requirement to state a certain name on a label involves not only a labelling requirement, but also a substantive naming rule that is not subject to the TBT Agreement. The European Communities claims that Article 2 of the EC Regulation contains such a substantive naming requirement for preserved Sardina pilchardus and does not contain any labelling requirements for preserved Sardinops sagax .

3. The Temporal Scope of Application of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement

29. The European Communities argues that the Panel erred in finding that Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement applies to technical regulations prepared and adopted before the TBT Agreement entered into force, and in considering that Article 2.4 applies to the maintenance of a technical regulation and not just to its adoption. In its view, the text of Article 2.4 indicates no obligation to reassess existing technical regulations in the light of the adoption of new international standards.

30. According to the European Communities, Article 2.4 applies only to the preparation and adoption of technical regulations, not to their maintenance. The preparation and adoption of the EC Regulation is an act that had "ceased to exist" when the obligation in Article 2.4 became effective. Article 28 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (the "Vienna Convention")16 states that provisions of a treaty do not bind a party in relation to any act or fact which took place or any situation which "ceased to exist" before the treaty came into effect.

31. The European Communities objects to the Panel's use of EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones) ("EC - Hormones ")17 to support its finding because the Appellate Body, in that case, based its conclusion on the wording of Articles 2.2, 2.3, 3.3, and 5.6 of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the "SPS Agreement "), all of which include the word "maintain".18 Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement , however, does not include the word "maintain".

32. The terms "use" and "as a basis for" in Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement and the introductory language "where technical regulations are required" imply, according to the European Communities, that this provision relates to the drawing up, drafting or preparation of technical regulations. This conclusion, furthermore, is supported by the inclusion of the word "imminent" in Article 2.4. The European Communities notes that Article 2.4 does not impose an obligation to use a draft international standard whose completion is not imminent. It argues, therefore, that it could not have been intended that an existing technical regulation would become inconsistent with Article 2.4 once completion of the draft international standard became "imminent", or even once the standard is actually adopted and becomes "existing".

33. The European Communities further alleges that Article 2.5 of the TBT Agreement provides contextual support for a conclusion that is the complete opposite of that reached by the Panel. According to the European Communities, Article 2.5 shows that when provisions of the TBT Agreement are intended to cover the application of technical regulations, they say so explicitly. Similar contextual support is found in Article 12.4, which uses the word "adopt", and in paragraph F of the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards, included as Annex 3 to the TBT Agreement , which uses the word "develops". The European Communities also rejects the Panel's conclusion that Article 2.6 of the TBT Agreement would be redundant if Article 2.4 did not apply to existing measures. The objective of Article 2.6 is the harmonization of technical regulations. Thus, for the European Communities, it is obvious that WTO Members who have technical regulations on a subject should be encouraged to participate in the preparation of an international standard.

34. The European Communities, in addition, disagrees with the Panel's assertion that excluding existing technical regulations from the scope of application of Article 2.4 would create "grandfather rights", given that these measures would be subject to other obligations in the TBT Agreement that do relate to their maintenance, such as Article 2.3.

4. The Characterization of Codex Stan 94 as a "Relevant International Standard"

35. The European Communities claims that the Panel erred in concluding that Codex Stan 94 is a relevant international standard for purposes of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement .

36. The European Communities contends that only standards adopted by international bodies by consensus may be considered relevant international standards. According to the European Communities, this is evident from the penultimate sentence of the Explanatory note to the definition of "standard" in Annex 1.2 to the TBT Agreement , which states that standards prepared by the international standardization community are adopted by consensus. In its view, the reference to documents not based on consensus found in the last sentence of the Explanatory note covers documents adopted by entities other than international bodies. The European Communities asserts that the Panel erred in failing to verify whether Codex Stan 94 was adopted by consensus.

37. The European Communities alleges further that the Panel erred in law when interpreting the meaning of Codex Stan 94. According to the European Communities, the drafting history of Codex Stan 94 demonstrates that section 6.1.1(ii) should be interpreted as allowing the common name for the species of fish to be a possible name for the preserved "sardine-type" product, and that the word "sardine" does not have to be part of that name.

38. The European Communities notes that the draft of Codex Stan 94 at Step 7 of the elaboration procedures for Codex standards, listed "the common name for the species" in a subsection separate from that which referred to the name "X sardines". It then explains that because only editorial changes are allowed between Steps 7 and 8 of the elaboration procedures, the final text of Codex Stan 94, which contains both "names" in the same subsection, must be interpreted as providing that the common name of the species is an option independent from "X sardines". The European Communities contends that the Panel's contrary reading of the standard, which does not recognize "the common name" as separate from "X sardines", is not feasible because it would imply that an invalid, substantive change (as opposed to an editorial one) was made to the draft standard at Step 8 of the elaboration procedures.

39. The European Communities adds that Codex Stan 94, interpreted consistently with its drafting history, is not a relevant international standard in this case for purposes of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement , because its scope is different from that of the EC Regulation. It explains that Article 2 of the EC Regulation contains only a naming requirement for preserved sardines. For its part, Codex Stan 94, correctly interpreted, includes as a naming option for preserved "sardine-type" products the common name of the species alone, without the word "sardine".

5. Whether Codex Stan 94 was Used "As a Basis For" the EC Regulation

40. The European Communities claims that the Panel erred in concluding that Codex Stan 94 was not used "as a basis for" the EC Regulation. The European Communities argues that, despite the finding that the term "use as a basis" does not mean "conform to or comply with", the Panel applied the "as a basis" test in this case in such a narrow and restrictive manner as to make it, in practice, equivalent to the "conform to or comply with" test. In its view, the Panel erroneously considered that to meet the "as a basis" test, almost every single section and sentence of Codex Stan 94 must have been used in the technical regulation.

41. According to the European Communities, the EC Regulation covers only Sardina pilchardus and does not regulate Sardinops sagax , nor fish of other species. The European Communities thus argues that the relevant part of Codex Stan 94, for purposes of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement , is section 6.1.1(i), which states that the name "Sardines" is to be used exclusively for Sardina pilchardus . According to the European Communities, section 6.1.1(i) of Codex Stan 94 is used "as a basis for" the EC Regulation. The European Communities contends that section 6.1.1(ii) is not a relevant part of the standard because it refers to products that are not regulated by the EC Regulation. Therefore, it need not be used "as a basis for" the EC Regulation.

42. The European Communities also alleges that the Panel performed an incorrect analysis to determine whether the relevant international standard was used "as a basis for" the technical regulation. The appropriate analysis, in its view, is not whether the European Communities used Codex Stan 94 as the "principal constituent or fundamental principle" for the purpose of enacting the EC Regulation, but whether there is a "rational relationship" between them on the substantive aspects of the standard in question.

43. The European Communities explains that, pursuant to its legitimate objectives, the EC Regulation reserves the name "sardines" for Sardina pilchardus. Given that this is expressly foreseen in section 6.1.1(i) of Codex Stan 94, the European Communities asserts that the EC Regulation has a substantial relationship with Codex Stan 94. The European Communities concludes by stating that the substantial relationship between the two documents demonstrates that Codex Stan 94 was used "as a basis for" the EC Regulation.

6. The Question of the "Ineffectiveness or Inappropriateness" of Codex Stan 94

44. The European Communities claims that the Panel applied an incorrect burden of proof with respect to the second part of Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement and that it erred in finding that Codex Stan 94 is not an "ineffective or inappropriate means for the fulfilment of the legitimate objectives pursued".

45. According to the European Communities, there is no general rule-exception relationship between the first and second parts of Article 2.4 and, therefore, there is no shift in the burden of proof from the complainant to the respondent. The European Communities rejects the Panel's claim that only the respondent can spell out the objectives pursued through a regulation, explaining that the objectives are usually described in the measure itself, as the EC Regulation demonstrates. Nor are the Panel's concerns regarding the lack of information on the part of the complainant sufficient, in the European Communities' view, to shift the burden to the respondent. The European Communities explains that, in addition to the obligation on a Member to justify a measure under Article 2.5 of the TBT Agreement , the complaining party may also enquire about a measure during consultations. The European Communities asserts, furthermore, that the Panel's finding on the burden of proof is not consistent with how the Appellate Body applied this burden regarding a similar provision of the SPS Agreement in the EC - Hormones case.

46. The European Communities argues that the Panel arrived at an incorrect finding with respect to the effectiveness or appropriateness of Codex Stan 94, because it misunderstood the objectives of the EC Regulation. In this regard, the European Communities explains that the purpose of the EC Regulation is to lay down marketing standards for preserved Sardina pilchardus and that the European Communities does not pursue thereby any objectives in relation to preserved Sardinops sagax .

47. The European Communities claims that the Panel erred in basing its conclusion regarding the effectiveness or appropriateness of the EC Regulation on the validity of the factual assumption that consumers in the European Communities have not always associated the term "sardines" exclusively with Sardina pilchardus . The European Communities states that even if consumers have different opinions with respect to what is a sardine, there may still be the possibility of confusion and the need for measures to improve market transparency, protect consumers, and maintain product diversity.

48. The European Communities also rejects the Panel's reliance in its reasoning on whether or not "sardines" is a common name for Sardinops sagax . According to the European Communities, even if "sardines" were a common name for preserved Sardinops sagax , this does not change the need to ensure that this product bears a unique name in the European Communities market.

49. The European Communities argues, finally, that the Panel erred in dismissing as irrelevant to the question of consumer expectations the domestic legislation of the member States of the European Communities. In its view, consumer expectations are generally based on some kind of legal protection.

7. The Objectivity of the Assessment of Certain Facts by the Panel

50. The European Communities claims that the Panel did not conduct "an objective assessment of the facts of the case" as required by Article 11 of the DSU. According to the European Communities, the Panel deliberately and without motivation refused to consider facts that were brought to its attention, although panels are obliged to examine all relevant facts and evidence presented to them by the parties or obtained through their own initiative. In the European Communities' view, the Panel also failed to provide an adequate and reasonable explanation for its findings. The European Communities then refers to four specific instances where the Panel allegedly failed to discharge its duty under Article 11 of the DSU.

51. The first instance referred to by the European Communities is the Panel's conclusion that the Spanish and French dictionaries submitted by the European Communities supported the view that the term "sardines" is not limited to Sardina pilchardus . The European Communities claims next that the Panel should not have treated as evidence the letter of the United Kingdom Consumers' Association submitted by Peru, because it was prejudiced and contained a manifestly incorrect appreciation of United Kingdom law.

52. As a third instance, the European Communities alleges that the Panel disregarded evidence concerning the actual names given to "sardine-type" products in the European Communities. This evidence consisted of tins and supermarket receipts for preserved herring, sardinellas, sprats, mackerel and anchovies, as well as labels of preserved Sardinops sagax sold in the European Communities under the name "Pacific Pilchards". The European Communities finally claims that the Panel erred in refusing to ask the Codex Commission for its opinion concerning the meaning, status and validity of Codex Stan 94.

8. The References in the Panel Report to Trade-Restrictiveness

53. The European Communities submits that the Panel erred in qualifying the EC Regulation as trade-restrictive. It rejects the qualification and asserts that the EC Regulation is neither trade-restrictive with respect to preserved Sardinops sagax , nor with respect to preserved Sardina pilchardus .

54. In addition, the European Communities argues that the issue of trade-restrictiveness is not relevant to the analysis under Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement and that, having exercised judicial economy with respect to Peru's other claims, it was improper for the Panel to have examined this issue.

55. The European Communities states, moreover, that Article 15.2 of the DSU does not permit panels to make additional legal findings at the interim review stage.

9. Completing the Legal Analysis

56. The European Communities asserts that there are insufficient undisputed facts in the Panel record for the Appellate Body to complete the legal analysis in respect of Peru's other claims. It further argues that Articles 2.2 and 2.1 of the TBT Agreement involve complex issues of law that, contrary to Peru's contention, are completely different from those related to Article 2.4 of the TBT Agreement , and which have not been clarified by the Appellate Body or by dispute settlement panels.



1 WT/DS231/R, 29 May 2002, WT/DS231/R/Corr.1, 10 June 2002.

2 OJ No L 212, 22.07.1989, reproduced as Annex 1 to the Panel Report, pp. 79-81.

3 Panel Report, para. 2.2.

4 Codex Stan 94, as reproduced in Annex 2 to the Panel Report, section 2.1.1.

5 We note, however, that the text of Codex Stan 94, published in the print version of the Codex Alimentarius, presents certain differences in respect to the version used by the Panel and submitted by Peru to the Panel as Exhibit PERU-3. Section 6 published in the print version of the Codex Alimentarius reads as follows:

6. LABELLING

In addition to the provisions of the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985, Rev. 1-1991) the following specific provisions apply:

6.1 NAME OF THE FOOD

The name of the product shall be:

6.1.1 (i) "Sardines" (to be reserved exclusively for Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum)); or

(ii) "X sardines" where "X" is the name of a country, a geographic area, the species, or the common name of the species in accordance with the law and custom of the country in which the product is sold, and in a manner not to mislead the consumer.

6.1.2 The name of the packing medium shall form part of the name of the food.

6.1.3 If the fish has been smoked or smoke flavoured, this information shall appear on the label in close proximity to the name.

6.1.4 In addition, the label shall include other descriptive terms that will avoid misleading or confusing the consumer. (emphasis added)

(Codex Alimentarius (Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, 2001), Volume 9A, Fish and Fishery Products, pp. 75-81)

6 Panel Report, para. 2.2.

7 Panel Report, para. 2.3.

8 Ibid., para. 3.1.

9 Ibid., paras. 8.1 and 7.152.

10 Ibid., para. 8.3.

11 Pursuant to Rule 21 of the Working Procedures .

12 Pursuant to Rule 22 of the Working Procedures .

13 Pursuant to Rule 24 of the Working Procedures .

14 Ibid.

15 Appellate Body Report, WT/DS135/AB/R, adopted 5 April 2001.

16 Done at Vienna, 23 May 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331; 8 International Legal Materials 679.

17 Appellate Body Report, WT/DS26/AB/R, WT/DS48/AB/R, adopted 13 February 1998, DSR 1998:I, 135.

18 We note that, although the European Communities refers to Article 2.3 of the SPS Agreement in its appellant's submission, this provision does not include the word "maintain".


To continue with B. Arguments of Peru - Appellee