||The cumulative assessment of the volume and price effects of imports of the subject
merchandise from all countries with respect to which antidumping or countervailing duty petitions were filed if such imports
compete with each other and with domestic like products in the export market. See Origin Regime, page 35, where this text may have
a slightly different meaning.
||Complete record of administrative procedures.
|Amount of subsidy
||Amount of financial contribution; transfer of funds; or other from of income or price
support paid for the manufacture, production, or export of an article.
||Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade 1994, in Annex 1 A to the WTO Agreement – WTO agreement resulting from the Uruguay Round that implements Article VI
of GATT 1994.
||Duty applied to imports of a particular good from a specified country in order to
eliminate the harm being caused by the dumping to the domestic industry of the importing country. Article VI of the GATT 1994 permits
the imposition of antidumping duties against dumped goods, equal to the difference between their export price and their normal value,
if dumping causes injury to producers of competing
||Information of commercial value, the disclosure of which is likely to have the effect of either
impairing the investigator’s ability to obtain such information as is necessary to perform its functions, or causing substantial harm to
the competitive position of the products in the importing country.
||Relationship or connection between a cause and an effect. A domestic industry petitioning for an antidumping
investigation must provide evidence of a causal link between the dumped imports and the alleged injury. See Safeguards, page 36, where
this text may have a slightly different meaning.
||Measures taken by exporters to evade antidumping or countervailing duties.
||A special duty levied for the purpose of offsetting any bounty or subsidy bestowed,
directly, or indirectly, upon the manufacture, production or export of any merchandise. No WTO member may levy any countervailing
duty on the importation of any product of the territory of another unless it determines that the effect of the subsidization is
such as to cause or threaten material injury to an established domestic industry, or is such as to retard materially the establishment
of a domestic industry.
||Action taken by the importing country, usually in the form of increased duties to offset
subsidies given to producers or exporters in the exporting country. Additional duties imposed by the importing country to offset
government subsidies in the exporting country when the subsidized imports cause material injury to domestic industry in the importing country.
||(Latin meaning “of the least”). The margin of dumping is considered de minimis, or the volume of dumped
imports, actual or potential, or the injury, is considered negligible, if this margin is less than 2 per cent, expressed as a percentage of
the export price. The investigation is then terminated. Moreover, the volume of dumped imports shall normally be regarded as negligible if
the volume of dumped imports from a particular country is found to account for less than 3 per cent of imports of the like product in the
importing Member, unless countries which individually account for less than 3 percent of the imports of the like product in the importing
Member collectively account for more than 7 per cent of imports of the like product in the importing Member.
||The final legal assessment or collection of a duty or tax where the facts as
finally established show that there is dumping and injury caused thereby.
||Domestic producers as a whole of the like products or to those of them whose
collective output of the products constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of those products.
||Any act, practice, or measure other than an export subsidy by which a government
confers a benefit upon a product and/or enterprise. See “subsidy”, page 42.
||Introduction of a product into the commerce of another country at less than its
normal value, if the export price of the product exported from one country to another is less than the comparable price, in the ordinary
course of trade, for the like product when destined for consumption in the exporting country. Selling merchandise in another country at
a price below the price at which the same merchandise is sold in the home market or selling such merchandise below the costs incurred in
production and shipment Dumping occurs when goods are exported at a price less than their normal value, generally meaning they are exported
for less than they are sold in the domestic market or third-country markets, or at less than production cost.
||This refers to antidumping duties which must be deposited upon entry of
merchandise which is the subject of an antidumping duty order for each manufacturer, producer or exporter equal to the amount by which
the foreign market value exceeds the price of the merchandise in the domestic market.
||Crucial facts considered and used for the decision to apply, or not, an
||A subsidy such as those described in the Illustrative List of Export
Subsidies of the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. See “subsidy”, page 42.
||Final decision on an antidumping or subsidy investigation.
|In situ investigation
|Initiation of an
||Procedural action by which a WTO member formally commences an antidumping investigation
to determine the existence, degree and effect of any alleged dumping.
||Occurs when the effect of the dumping or subsidization, as the case may be,
is such as to cause or threaten material injury to an established domestic industry, or is such as to retard materially the establishment
of a domestic industry.
||Body in charge of carrying out an antidumping or subsidy investigation.
||Procedure to determine the existence, degree, and effects of dumping or subsidies.
||A duty which is less than the margin of dumping but adequate to remove the injury
to the domestic industry.
||A product which is identical, i.e. alike in all respects to the product under
consideration, or in the absence of such a product, another product which, although not alike in all respects, has characteristics closely
resembling those of the product under consideration.
|Margin of dumping
||The difference between the comparable price of the like product when exported to
an appropriate third country and the cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable amount for administrative, selling and
general costs and for profits.
|Normal course of trade
||Sales made in the course of normal operations.
||The price at which merchandise is sold or offered for sale in the principal
markets of the country from which it is exported.
||Initial procedure to determine the existence, degree, and effects of dumping or subsidization.
||Undertaking by an exporter to raise the export price of the product to avoid the possibility
of an antidumping duty.
||Effective or operative in the future.
||Provisionally applied as opposed to definitive duty.
||The general welfare of the public that warrants recognition and protection.
Constructed/ Reconstructed value
||A means of determining fair or foreign market value when sales of such or
similar merchandise do not exist or, for various reasons, cannot be used for comparison purposes. The “constructed value” consists of the
cost of materials and fabrication or other processing employed in producing the merchandise, general expenses of not less than 10 percent
of material and fabrication costs, and profit of not less than 8 percent of the sum of the production costs and general expenses. To this
amount is added the cost of packing for exportation to the export market.
||The relevant market is determined on the basis of first establishing the relevant product
market and geographic market. The relevant product market comprises all the products and/or services that the consumer and/or user consider
to be interchangeable or substitutable by reason of their characteristics, price or intended use. The relevant geographic market comprises all
areas in which competitors in the relevant product market compete with each other in the sale or purchase of products under equal competition
conditions. Geographic areas in which the competition conditions are significantly different are not taken into account in determining the
relevant geographic market. See Competition Policy, page 22, where this text may have a slightly different meaning.
||Taking effect from a date in the past.
||Review of rights and obligations that might be initiated by the investigating authority.
||An export subsidy is a benefit conferred on a firm by the government that is contingent on
exports. A domestic subsidy is a benefit not directly linked to exports.
||Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures in Annex 1 a to the WTO Agreement
(also known as SCM Agreement) - The Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures is intended to build on the Agreement on Interpretation
and Application of Articles VI, XVI and XXIII which was negotiated in the Tokyo Round.
||Procedure under which an antidumping or countervailing duty automatically terminates at the end
of a fixed period unless it is formally renewed.
||A timetable for the verification of documents by the investigative authority.
||The percentage determined by dividing the aggregate dumping margins determined for a
specific exporter or producer by the aggregate export prices and constructed export prices of such exporter or producer.
||In a comparison of the weighted average normal value with the weighted average of prices
of comparable export transactions for the product under an antidumping investigation, the practice of assigning a zero margin to a negative
dumping margin (when the export price is above the normal price) found for any export transaction.