Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment
The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua (hereinafter the "Parties");
Desiring to promote greater economic cooperation between them, with respect to investment by nationals and companies of one Party in the territory of the
Recognizing that agreement upon the treatment to be accorded such investment will stimulate the flow of private capital and the economic development of
Agreeing that a stable framework for investment will maximize effective utilization of economic resources and improve living standards;
Recognizing that the development of economic and business ties can promote respect for internationally recognized worker rights;
Agreeing that these objectives can be achieved without relaxing health, safety and environmental measures of general application; and
Having resolved to conclude a Treaty concerning the encouragement and reciprocal protection of investment;
Have agreed as follows:
1. For the purposes of this Treaty,
(a) "company" means any entity constituted or organized under applicable law, whether or not for profit, and whether privately or governmentally
owned or controlled, and includes a corporation, trust, partnership, sole proprietorship, branch, joint venture, association, or other organization;
(b) "company of a Party" means a company constituted or organized under the laws of that Party;
(c) "national" of a Party means a natural person who is a national of that Party under its applicable law;
(d) "investment" of a national or company means every kind of investment owned or controlled directly or indirectly by that national or company,
and includes investment consisting or taking the form of:
(i) a company;
(ii) shares, stock, and other forms of equity participation, and bonds, debentures, and other forms of debt interests, in a company;
(iii) contractual rights, such as under turnkey, construction or management contracts, production or revenue-sharing contracts, concessions, or other
(iv) tangible property, including real property; and intangible property, including rights, such as leases, mortgages, liens and pledges;
(v) intellectual property, including: copyrights and related rights, patents, rights in plant varieties, industrial designs, rights in semiconductor layout designs, trade secrets, including know-how and confidential business information, trade and service marks, and trade names; and
(vi) rights conferred pursuant to law, such as% licenses and permits;
(e) "covered investment" means an investment of a national or company of a Party in the territory of the other Party;
(f) "state enterprise" means a company owned, or controlled through ownership interests, by a Party;
(g) "investment authorization" means an authorization granted by the foreign investment authority of a Party to a covered investment
or a national or company of the other Party;
(h) "investment agreement". means a written agreement between the national authorities of a Party and a covered investment or a national or
company of the other Party that (i) grants rights with respect to natural resources or other assets controlled by the national authorities and (ii) the investment, national or company relies upon in establishing or acquiring a covered investment.
(i) "territory" means the territory of the United States or the Republic of Nicaragua, including the territorial sea established in accordance
with international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. This Treaty also applies in the seas and seabed adjacent
to the territorial seas in which the United States or the Republic of Nicaragua has sovereign rights or jurisdiction in accordance with international law
as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
(j) "ICSID Convention" means the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, done at
Washington, March 18, 1965;
(k) "Centre" means the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes Established by the ICSID Convention; and
(l) "UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules" means the arbitration rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.
1. With respect to the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation and sale or other disposition of covered investments, each
Party shall accord treatment no less favorable than that it accords, in like situations, to investments in its territory of its own nationals or companies
(hereinafter "national treatment") or to investments in its territory of nationals or companies of a third country (hereinafter "most favored
nation treatment"), whichever is most favorable (hereinafter "national and most favored nation treatment"). Each Party shall ensure that its
state enterprises, in the provision of their goods or services, accord national and most favored nation treatment to covered investments.
2. a) A Party may adopt or maintain exceptions to the obligations of paragraph 1 in the sectors or with respect to the matters specified in
the Annex to this Treaty. In adopting such an exception, a Party may not require the divestment, in whole or in part, of covered investments existing
at the time the exception becomes effective.
(b) The obligations of paragraph 1 do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded under the auspices of the World
Intellectual Property Organization relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights.
3. (a) Each Party shall at all times accord to covered investments fair and equitable treatment and full protection and security, and shall in
no case accord treatment less favorable than that required by international law.
(b) Neither Party shall in any way impair by unreasonable and discriminatory measures the management, conduct, operation, and sale or other disposition
of covered investments.
4. Each Party shall provide effective -means of asserting claims and enforcing rights with respect to covered investments.
5. Each Party shall ensure that its laws, regulations, administrative practices and procedures of general application, and adjudicatory decisions, that
pertain to or affect covered investments are promptly published or otherwise made publicly available
1. Neither Party shall expropriate or nationalize a covered investment either directly or indirectly through measures tantamount to expropriation or
nationalization ("expropriation")' except for a public purpose; in a nondiscriminatory manner; upon payment of prompt, adequate and effective compensation; and in accordance with due process of law and the general principles of treatment provided for in Article 11(3).
2. Compensation shall be paid without delay; be equivalent to the fair market value of the expropriated investment immediately before the expropriatory
action was taken ("the date of expropriation"); and be fully realizable and freely transferable. The fair market value shall not reflect any
change in value occurring because the expropriatory action had become known before the date of expropriation.
3. If the fair market value is denominated in a freely usable currency, the compensation paid shall be no less than the fair market value on the date of
expropriation, plus interest at a commercially reasonable rate for that currency, accrued from the date of expropriation until the date of payment.
4. If the fair market value is denominated in a currency that is not freely usable, the compensation paid -- converted into the currency of payment at
the market rate of exchange prevailing on the date of Payment -- shall be no less than:
(a) the fair market value on the date of expropriation, converted into a freely usable currency at the market rate of exchange prevailing on that
(b) interest, at a commercially reasonable rate for that freely usable currency, accrued from the date of expropriation until the date of payment.
1. Each Party shall accord national and most favored nation treatment to covered investments as regards any measure relating to losses that investments
suffer in its territory owing to war or other armed conflict, revolution, state of national emergency, insurrection, civil disturbance, or similar events.
2. Each Party shall accord restitution, or pay compensation in accordance with paragraphs 2 through 4 of Article III, in the event that covered investments
suffer losses in its territory, owing to war or other armed conflict, revolution, state of national emergency, insurrection, civil. disturbance, or similar events, that result from:
(a) requisitioning of all or part of such investments by the Party's forces or authorities, or
(b) destruction of all or part of such investments by the Party's forces or authorities that was not required by the necessity of the situation.
1. Each Party shall permit all transfers relating to a covered investment to be made freely and without delay into and out of its territory. Such
(a) contributions to capital;
(b) profits, dividends, capital gains, and proceeds from the sale of all or any part of the investment or from the partial or complete liquidation
of the investment;
(c) interest, royalty payments, management fees, and technical assistance and other fees;
(d) payments made under a contract, including a loan agreement; and
(e) compensation pursuant to Articles III and IV, and payments arising out of an investment dispute.
2. Each Party shall permit transfers to be made in a freely usable currency at the market rate of exchange prevailing on the date of transfer.
3. Each Party shall permit returns in kind to be made as authorized or specified in an investment authorization, investment agreement, or other written
agreement between the Party and a covered investment or a national or company of the other Party.
4. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 through 3, a Party may prevent a transfer through the equitable, non-discriminatory and good faith application of its
laws relating to:
(a) bankruptcy, insolvency or the protection of the. rights of creditors;
(b) issuing, trading or dealing in securities;
(c) criminal or.penal offenses; or
(d) ensuring compliance with orders or judgments in adjudicatory proceedings.
1. Neither Party shall mandate or enforce, as a condition for the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct or operation of a covered
investment, any requirement (including any commitment or undertaking in connection with the receipt of a governmental permission or authorization):
(a) to achieve a particular level or percentage of local content, or to purchase, use or otherwise give a preference to products or services of
domestic origin or from any domestic source;
(b) to limit imports by the investment of products or services in relation to a particular volume or value of production, exports or foreign exchange
(c) to export a particular type, level or percentage of products or services, either generally or to a specific market region;
(d) to limit sales by the investment of products or services in the Party's territory in relation to a particular volume or: value of production,
exports or foreign exchange earnings;
(e) to transfer technology, a production process or other proprietary knowledge to a national or company in the Party's territory, except pursuant to
an order, commitment or undertaking that is enforced by a court, administrative tribunal or competition authority to remedy an alleged or adjudicated
violation of competition laws; or
(f) to carry out a particular type, level or percentage of research and development in the Party's territory.
2. Nothing in paragraph 1 shall preclude a Party from providing benefits and incentives conditioned upon the requirements listed in paragraph 1.
1. (a) Subject to its laws relating to the entry and sojourn of aliens, each Party shall permit to enter and to remain in its territory nationals of the
other Party for the purpose of establishing, developing, administering or advising on the operation of an investment to which they, or a company of the
other Party that employs them, have committed or are in the process of committing a substantial amount of capital or other resources.
(b) Neither Party shall, in granting entry under paragraph l(a), require a labor certification test or other procedures of similar effect, or apply any numerical restriction.
2. Each Party shall permit covered investments to engage top managerial personnel of their choice, regardless of nationality.
The Parties agree to consult promptly, on the request of either, to resolve any disputes in connection with the Treaty, or to discuss any matter relating
to the interpretation or application of the Treaty or to the realization of the objectives of the Treaty.
1. For purposes of this Treaty, an investment dispute is a dispute between a Party and a national or company of the -other Party arising out of or
relating to an investment authorization, an investment agreement or an alleged breach of any right conferred, created or recognized by this Treaty with
respect to a covered investment.
2. A national or company that is a party to an investment dispute may submit the dispute for resolution under one of the
(a) to the courts or administrative tribunals of the Party that is a party to the dispute; or
(b) in accordance with any applicable, previously agreed dispute-settlement procedures; or
(c) in accordance with the terms of paragraph 3.
3. (a) Provided that the national or company concerned has not submitted the dispute for resolution under paragraph 2 (a) or (b), and that three months
have elapsed from the date on which the dispute arose, the national or company concerned may submit the dispute for settlement by binding arbitration:
(i) to the Centre, if the Centre is available; or
(ii) to the Additional Facility of the Centre, if the Centre is not available; or
(iii) in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules; or
(iv) if agreed by both parties to the dispute, to any other arbitration institution or in accordance with any other arbitration rules.
(b) a national or company, notwithstanding that it may have submitted a dispute to binding arbitration under paragraph 3(a), may
seek interim injunctive relief, not involving the payment of damages, before the judicial or administrative tribunals of the Party that is a party to
the dispute, prior to the institution of the arbitral proceeding or during the proceeding, for the preservation of its rights and interests.
4. Each Party hereby consents to the submission of any
investment dispute for settlement by binding arbitration in accordance with the choice of the national or company under paragraph 3(a)(i), (ii), and (iii) or
the mutual agreement of both parties to the dispute under paragraph 3(a)(iv). This consent and the submission of the dispute by a national or company under paragraph 3(a) shall satisfy the requirement of:
(a) Chapter II of the ICSID Convention (Jurisdiction of the Centre) and the Additional Facility Rules for written consent of the parties to the
(b) Article II of the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and
Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, done &t New York, June 10, 1958, for an
"agreement in writing".
5. Any arbitration under paragraph 3(a)(ii), (iii) or
(iv) shall be held in a state that is a party to the United Nations Convention on the
Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, done at New York, June 10, 1958.
6. Any arbitral award rendered pursuant to this Article shall be final
and binding on the parties to the dispute. Each Party shall carry out without delay the
provisions of any such award and provide in its territory for the enforcement of such
7. In any proceeding involving an investment dispute, a Party shall not
assert, as a defense, counterclaim, right of set-off or for any other reason, that
indemnification or other compensation for all or part of the alleged damages has been
received or will be received pursuant to an insurance or guarantee contract.
8. For purposes of Article 25(2)(b) of the ICSID Convention and this
Article, a company of a Party that, immediately before the occurrence of the event or
events giving rise to an investment dispute, was a covered investment, shall be treated as
a company of the other Party.
1. Any dispute between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Treaty, that is not resolved through consultations; or other
diplomatic channels, shall be submitted upon the request of either Party to an arbitral tribunal for binding decision in accordance with the applicable rules
of international law. In the absence of an agreement by the Parties to the contrary, the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules shall govern, except to the extent these
rules are (a) modified by the Parties or (b) modified by the arbitrators unless either Party objects to the proposed modification.
2. Within two months of receipt of a request, each Party shall appoint an arbitrator. The two arbitrators shall select a third arbitrator as chairman, who
shall be a national of a third state. The UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules applicable to appointing members of three-member panels shall apply mutatis mutandis
to the appointment of the arbitral panel except that the appointing authority referenced in those rules shall be the Secretary General of the Centre.
3. Unless otherwise agreed, all submissions shall be made and all hearings shall be completed within six months of the date of selection of the third
arbitrator, and the arbitral panel shall render its decisions within two months of the date of the final submissions or the date of the closing of the
hearings, whichever is later.
4. Expenses incurred by the Chairman and other arbitrators, and other costs of the proceedings, shall be paid for equally by the Parties. However, the
arbitral panel may, at its' discretion, direct that a higher proportion of the costs be paid by one of the Parties.
This Treaty shall not derogate from any of the following that entitle covered investments to treatment more favorable than that accorded by this
(a) laws and regulations, administrative practices or procedures, or administrative or adjudicatory decisions of a Party;
(b) international legal obligations; or
(c) obligations assumed by a Party, including those contained in an investment authorization or an investment agreement.
Each Party reserves the right to deny to a company of the other Party the.benefits of this Treaty if nationals of a third country own or control
the company and
(a) the denying Party does not maintain normal economic relations with the third country; or
(b) the company has no substantial business activities in the territory of the Party under whose laws it is constituted or organized.
1. No provision of this Treaty shall impose obligations with respect to tax matters, except that:
(a) Articles III, IX and X will apply with respect to expropriation; and
(b) Article IX will apply with respect to an investment agreement or an investment authorization.
2. A national or company, that asserts in an investment dispute that a tax matter involves an expropriation, may submit that dispute to arbitration
pursuant to Article IX(3) only if:
(a) the national or company concerned has first referred to the competent tax authorities of both Parties the issue of whether the tax matter
involves an expropriation; and
(b) the competent tax authorities have not both determined, within nine months from the time the national or company referred the issue, that the matter
does not involve an expropriation.
1. This Treaty shall not preclude a Party from applying measures necessary for the fulfillment of its obligations with respect to the maintenance or
restoration of international peace or security, or the protection of its own essential security interests.
2. This Treaty shall not preclude a Party from prescribing special formalities in connection with covered investments, such as a requirement that such
investments be legally constituted under the laws and regulations of that Party, or a requirement that transfers of currency or other -monetary instruments
be reported, provided that such formalities shall not impair the substance of any of the rights set forth in this Treaty.
1. (a) The obligations of this Treaty shall apply to the political subdivisions of the Parties.
(b) With respect to the treatment accorded by a State, Territory or possession of the United States of America, national treatment means treatment no
less favorable than the k treatment accorded thereby, in like situations, to investment&6 of nationals of the United States of America resident in,
and companies legally constituted under the laws and regulations of, other States, Territories or possessions of the United States of America.
2. A Party's obligations under this Treaty shall apply to a state enterprise in the exercise of any regulatory, administrative or other governmental
authority delegated to it by that Party.
1. This Treaty shall enter into force thirty days after the date of exchange of instruments of ratification. It shall remain in force for a period of
ten years and shall continue in force unless terminated in accordance with paragraph 2. It shall apply to covered investments existing at the time of
entry into force as well as to those established or acquired thereafter.
2. A Party may terminate this treaty at the end of the initial ten year period or at any time thereafter by giving one year's written notice to the other Party.
3. For ten years from the date of termination, all other Articles shall continue to apply to covered investments established or acquired prior to the date of
termination, except insofar as those Articles extend to the establishment or acquisition of covered investments.
4. The Annex and Protocol shall form an integral part of the Treaty.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.
DONE in duplicate at Denver this first day of July, 1995, in the English and Spanish
languages, each text being equally authentic.
|FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF
||FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF
|THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
||THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA
| /s/ Mickey Kantor
|| /s/ Pablo Pereira Gallardo
1. The Government of the United States of America may adopt or maintain exceptions to the obligation to accord national treatment to covered
investments in the sectors or with respect to the matters specified below:
atomic energy; customhouse brokers; licenses for broadcast, common carrier, or aeronautical radio stations; COMSAT; subsidies or grants,
including government-supported loans, guarantees and insurance; state and local measures exempt from Article 1102 of the North American Free Trade
Agreement pursuant to Article 1108 thereof; and landing of submarine cables.
Most favored nation treatment shall be accorded in the sectors and matters indicated above.
2. The Government of the United States of America may adopt or maintain exceptions to the obligation to accord national and most favored nation treatment to
covered investments in the sectors or with respect to the matters specified below:
fisheries; air and maritime transport, and related activities.
3. The Government of the United States of America may adopt or maintain exceptions to the obligation to accord national and most favored
nation treatment to covered investments, provided that the exceptions do not result in treatment nder this Treaty less favorable than the treatment that
the Government of the United States of America has undertaken to accord in the North American Free Trade Agreement with respect to another party to that
Agreement, in the sectors or with respect to the matters specified below:
banking, insurance, securities, and other financial services.
4. The Government of the Republic of Nicaragua may adopt, or maintain exceptions to the obligation to accord national treatment to covered
investments in the sectors or with respect to the matters specified below:
real estate in the border zone; fishing (with the exception of aquaculture); and official subsidies for small and medium-sized businesses.
Most favored nation treatment shall be accorded in the sectors and matters indicated above.
5. Each Party agrees to accord national treatment to covered investments in the following sectors:
leasing of minerals or pipeline rights-of-way on government lands.
1. With respect to Article XIV, paragraph 1, the Parties confirm their mutual understanding that whether a measure is .undertaken by a Party
to protect its national security interests is self judging.
2. The Parties confirm their mutual understanding that the provisions of this Treaty do not bind either Party in relation to any act or fact which took
place or any situation which ceased to exist before the date of.the entry into force of this Treaty.
3. The Parties understand that, with respect to rights reserved in paragraph 1 of Article XIV of the Treaty, "obligations with respect to the
maintenance or restoration of international peace or security" means obligations under the Charter of the United Nations.